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Difference between revisions of "EBC Exercise 10 Flashing an LED"

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m (Analog in: Moved to it's own page)
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[[Category:ECE497]]
 
[[Category:ECE497]]
 
{{YoderHead}}
 
{{YoderHead}}
 +
{{EBC3.8}}This page is for the Bone (Black or White) running the 3.8 Kernel. See [[EBC_Exercise_10_Flashing_an_LED_-_xM_WhiteBone]] for the White Bone or xM running 3.2.
  
 
The [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hello_world_program "Hello World"] program is the traditional first program for many classes.  Flashing an LED is the embedded equivalent.  Here we will explore a few ways to flash and LED on the Beagle and explore General Purpose I/O (gpio) along the way.  These calls will be done from the command line of the Beagle, so there is no need for the host computer.
 
The [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hello_world_program "Hello World"] program is the traditional first program for many classes.  Flashing an LED is the embedded equivalent.  Here we will explore a few ways to flash and LED on the Beagle and explore General Purpose I/O (gpio) along the way.  These calls will be done from the command line of the Beagle, so there is no need for the host computer.
Line 9: Line 10:
 
('''Note''':  Draw the new diagrams with [http://engineersofthecorn.blogspot.com/2012/06/fritzing-part-for-beaglebone.html this].)
 
('''Note''':  Draw the new diagrams with [http://engineersofthecorn.blogspot.com/2012/06/fritzing-part-for-beaglebone.html this].)
  
The easiest way to do general purpose I/O (gpio) on the Beagle is through a terminal window and a shell prompt. In Linux almost everything is treated as a file.  Even things that aren't files. In our class we'll use a virtual file system called '''sysfs'''.  sysfs exposes the drivers for the hardware so you get easily use them.
+
The easiest way to do general purpose I/O (gpio) on the Beagle is through a terminal window and a shell prompt. In Linux, almost everything is treated as a file, even things that aren't files. In our class we'll use a virtual file system called '''sysfs'''.  sysfs exposes the drivers for the hardware so you get easily use them.
  
 
Try this, open a terminal and type:
 
Try this, open a terminal and type:
Line 23: Line 24:
 
  beagle$ '''cd /sys/class'''
 
  beagle$ '''cd /sys/class'''
 
  beagle$ '''ls -F'''
 
  beagle$ '''ls -F'''
  bccat/     hwmon/       mtd/             scsi_disk/     usb_device/
+
  backlight/ firmware/     lcd/      mtd/           scsi_disk/   ubi/
  bdi/        i2c-adapter/ net/             scsi_generic/ usbmon/
+
  bdi/        gpio/         leds/      net/           scsi_host/   udc/
  block/      i2c-dev/      omap-previewerscsi_host/     vc/
+
  block/      graphics/    mbox/      power_supplysound/       uio/
  bluetooth/  input/        omap-resizer/   sound/        video4linux/
+
  bluetooth/  hwmon/        mdio_busregulator/     spi_master/ usbmon/
  bsg/       leds/        pvr/            spi_master/   vtconsole/
+
  bsg/       i2c-adapter/  mem/       rfkill/       spidev/      vc/
  display/   mdio_bus/     regulator/      spidev/
+
  dma/       i2c-dev/      misc/     rtc/           thermal/    vtconsole/
  firmware/  mem/         rfkill/         thermal/
+
  drm/       input/        mmc_host/ scsi_device/   tty/        watchdog/
  gpio/       misc/         rtc/             tty/
+
  graphics/   mmc_host/     scsi_device/     ubi/
+
  
Explore some.  What do you find?  In '''graphics''' you will see the 3 frame buffers supported by the processor.  In '''sound''' you'll see the [http://www.alsa-project.org/main/index.php/Main_Page alsa] sound devices.
+
Explore some.  What do you find?  In '''graphics''' you will see the frame buffer supported by the processor.  In '''sound''' you'll see the [http://www.alsa-project.org/main/index.php/Main_Page alsa] sound devices.
  
 
== Flashing the user LEDs ==
 
== Flashing the user LEDs ==
  
The Beagle xM has two user LEDS, '''user0''' and '''user1''', that you can control.  The Bone has 4. Try this:
+
The Beagle Black has four user LEDS, '''user0''' - '''user3''', that you can control. Try this:
  
 
  beagle$ '''cd /sys/class/leds'''
 
  beagle$ '''cd /sys/class/leds'''
 
  beagle$ '''ls -F'''
 
  beagle$ '''ls -F'''
  beaglebeagleboard::pmu_stat@ beagleboard::usr0@ beagleboard::usr1@
+
  beaglebone:green:usr0 beaglebone:green:usr2
 +
  beaglebone:green:usr1 beaglebone:green:usr3
  
 
Here you see the directories for controlling each of the usr LEDs. By default, usr0 flashes a heartbeat pattern and usr1 flashes when the micro SD card is accessed.  Let's control usr0.
 
Here you see the directories for controlling each of the usr LEDs. By default, usr0 flashes a heartbeat pattern and usr1 flashes when the micro SD card is accessed.  Let's control usr0.
Line 52: Line 52:
  
 
  beagle$ '''cat trigger'''
 
  beagle$ '''cat trigger'''
  none nand-disk mmc0 [heartbeat]
+
  none nand-disk mmc0 timer oneshot [heartbeat] backlight gpio cpu0 default-on transient
  
This shows trigger can have 4 values.  The present value is '''heartbeat'''.  Check the LED, is the beating?  You can stop the heartbeat via:
+
This shows trigger can have many values.  The present value is '''heartbeat'''.  Check the LED, is it beating?  You can stop the heartbeat via:
  
 
  beagle$ '''echo none > trigger'''
 
  beagle$ '''echo none > trigger'''
 
  beagle$ '''cat trigger'''
 
  beagle$ '''cat trigger'''
  [none] nand-disk mmc0 heartbeat  
+
  [none] nand-disk mmc0 timer oneshot heartbeat backlight gpio cpu0 default-on transient
  
 
Did it stop beating?  You can now turn it on and off with:
 
Did it stop beating?  You can now turn it on and off with:
Line 72: Line 72:
 
  [none] mmc0 timer heartbeat backlight gpio default-on  
 
  [none] mmc0 timer heartbeat backlight gpio default-on  
 
  beagle$ '''echo timer > trigger'''
 
  beagle$ '''echo timer > trigger'''
  brightness  delay_on  max_brightness  subsystem  uevent
+
beagle$ '''ls -F'''
  delay_off  device   power           trigger
+
  brightness  delay_on  max_brightness  subsystem@ uevent
 +
  delay_off  devicepower/          trigger
 
  beagle$ '''echo 100 > delay_on'''
 
  beagle$ '''echo 100 > delay_on'''
 
  beagle$ '''echo 900 > delay_off'''
 
  beagle$ '''echo 900 > delay_off'''
Line 79: Line 80:
 
What does this do?
 
What does this do?
  
== Adding your own LED - bone ==
+
== Adding your own LED ==
  
 
It's not hard to use the gpio pins to control your own LED. All you need is an LED and a 220Ω resistor. Here's a picture of how it's wired. We are just doing the LED at the top of the breadboard for now.
 
It's not hard to use the gpio pins to control your own LED. All you need is an LED and a 220Ω resistor. Here's a picture of how it's wired. We are just doing the LED at the top of the breadboard for now.
Line 86: Line 87:
 
[[File:BoneGPIO.png|300px]]
 
[[File:BoneGPIO.png|300px]]
  
So how do you know where to connect it?  The BeagleBone [http://beagleboard.org/static/beaglebone/latest/Docs/Hardware/BONE_SRM.pdf System Reference Manual] has the details.  Figure 3 on page 18 of RevA5.01 shows:
+
So how do you know where to connect it?  The BeagleBone [https://github.com/CircuitCo/BeagleBone-Black/blob/master/BBB_SRM.pdf?raw=true System Reference Manual] has the details.  Figure 45 on page 74 shows:
  
[[File:Beagle Bone.jpg|300px]]
+
[[File:BlackHeaders.jpg]]
  
There at two expansion headers, P8 and P9.  Look at the bottom of the left header and you'll see it's labeled '''P9'''. Table 11 on page 59 shows the pinout for P9.
+
There at two expansion headers, P8 and P9.  Look at the bottom of the left header and you'll see it's labeled '''P9'''. Table 11 on page 78 shows the pinout for P9.
  
[[File:Bone P9 pinout.jpg|400px]]
+
[[File:HeaderP9.jpg|800px]]
  
 
On the first photo above you can see that pin 1 (Ground) is wired to the '''-''' bus and pin 3 (3.3V) is wired to the '''+''' bus. The 220Ω resistor is wired to the '''-''' bus and the other end is attached to the negative lead of the LED.  The positive lead is attached to pin 12 which, as shown in Table 11, is attached to '''gpio1_28'''.  The gpio pins are in banks of 32 each, so to find the gpio number to use on the Beagle, use 1*32+28='''60'''.  Here's how you turn it on
 
On the first photo above you can see that pin 1 (Ground) is wired to the '''-''' bus and pin 3 (3.3V) is wired to the '''+''' bus. The 220Ω resistor is wired to the '''-''' bus and the other end is attached to the negative lead of the LED.  The positive lead is attached to pin 12 which, as shown in Table 11, is attached to '''gpio1_28'''.  The gpio pins are in banks of 32 each, so to find the gpio number to use on the Beagle, use 1*32+28='''60'''.  Here's how you turn it on
  
 
  beagle$ '''cd /sys/class/gpio'''
 
  beagle$ '''cd /sys/class/gpio'''
  beagle$ '''ls'''
+
  beagle$ '''ls -F'''
  export  gpiochip0  gpiochip32  gpiochip64  gpiochip96  unexport
+
  export  gpiochip0@ gpiochip32@ gpiochip64@ gpiochip96@ unexport
  
 
Presently no gpio pins are visible.  You need to tell it which pin to export
 
Presently no gpio pins are visible.  You need to tell it which pin to export
  
 
  beagle$ '''echo 60 > export'''
 
  beagle$ '''echo 60 > export'''
  beagle$ '''ls'''
+
  beagle$ '''ls -F'''
  gpio60  gpiochip0  gpiochip32  gpiochip64  gpiochip96
+
export gpio60@ gpiochip0@ gpiochip32@ gpiochip64@ gpiochip96@  unexport
  
 
Notice '''gpio60''' has appeared.  All we need to do is tell it which direction and then turn it on.
 
Notice '''gpio60''' has appeared.  All we need to do is tell it which direction and then turn it on.
Line 113: Line 114:
  
 
Your LED should be on!  When you are done you can unexport the pin and it will disappear.
 
Your LED should be on!  When you are done you can unexport the pin and it will disappear.
  beagle$ cd ..
+
  beagle$ '''cd ..'''
 
  beagle$ '''echo 60 > unexport'''
 
  beagle$ '''echo 60 > unexport'''
  
== Reading a switch - bone ==
+
== Reading a switch ==
  
 
Now that you have an LED working, wiring in a switch is easy.  The picture above shows a push button switch wired in at the bottom of the P9 header.  Attach the '''+''' bus to one pole on the switch with a wire.  The other end of the switch is attached to pin 42 which is '''gpio0_7'''.  
 
Now that you have an LED working, wiring in a switch is easy.  The picture above shows a push button switch wired in at the bottom of the P9 header.  Attach the '''+''' bus to one pole on the switch with a wire.  The other end of the switch is attached to pin 42 which is '''gpio0_7'''.  
Line 133: Line 134:
 
Push the pushbutton and see what happens.
 
Push the pushbutton and see what happens.
  
How can this work without a pulldown resistor? It turns out the Bone has an internal pulldown (and up) resistor that can be software enabled.  Try:
+
How can this work without a pulldown resistor? It turns out the Bone has an internal pulldown (and up) resistor that can be software enabled.  We'll discuss how when we cover device trees.
 
+
beagle$ '''cd /sys/kernel/debug/omap_mux'''
+
beagle$ '''ls'''
+
ain0              gpmc_ad2        lcd_data3      mii1_txd2
+
ain1              gpmc_ad3        lcd_data4      mii1_txd3
+
ain2              gpmc_ad4        lcd_data5      mii1_txen
+
ain3              gpmc_ad5        lcd_data6      mmc0_clk
+
ain4              gpmc_ad6        lcd_data7      mmc0_cmd
+
ain5              gpmc_ad7        lcd_data8      mmc0_dat0
+
ain6              gpmc_ad8        lcd_data9      mmc0_dat1
+
ain7              gpmc_ad9        lcd_hsync      mmc0_dat2
+
board              gpmc_advn_ale  lcd_pclk      mmc0_dat3
+
ecap0_in_pwm0_out  gpmc_ben0_cle  lcd_vsync      rmii1_refclk
+
emu0              gpmc_ben1      mcasp0_aclkr  spi0_cs0
+
emu1              gpmc_clk        mcasp0_aclkx  spi0_cs1
+
gpmc_a0            gpmc_csn0      mcasp0_ahclkr  spi0_d0
+
gpmc_a1            gpmc_csn1      mcasp0_ahclkx  spi0_d1
+
gpmc_a10          gpmc_csn2      mcasp0_axr0    spi0_sclk
+
gpmc_a11          gpmc_csn3      mcasp0_axr1    uart0_ctsn
+
gpmc_a2            gpmc_oen_ren    mcasp0_fsr    uart0_rtsn
+
gpmc_a3            gpmc_wait0      mcasp0_fsx    uart0_rxd
+
gpmc_a4            gpmc_wen        mdio_clk      uart0_txd
+
gpmc_a5            gpmc_wpn        mdio_data      uart1_ctsn
+
gpmc_a6            i2c0_scl        mii1_col      uart1_rtsn
+
gpmc_a7            i2c0_sda        mii1_crs      uart1_rxd
+
gpmc_a8            lcd_ac_bias_en  mii1_rxclk    uart1_txd
+
gpmc_a9            lcd_data0      mii1_rxd0      usb0_drvvbus
+
gpmc_ad0          lcd_data1      mii1_rxd1      usb1_drvvbus
+
gpmc_ad1          lcd_data10      mii1_rxd2      vrefn
+
gpmc_ad10          lcd_data11      mii1_rxd3      vrefp
+
gpmc_ad11          lcd_data12      mii1_rxdv      xdma_event_intr0
+
gpmc_ad12          lcd_data13      mii1_rxerr    xdma_event_intr1
+
gpmc_ad13          lcd_data14      mii1_txclk
+
gpmc_ad14          lcd_data15      mii1_txd0
+
gpmc_ad15          lcd_data2      mii1_txd1
+
beagle$ '''ls | wc'''
+
    125    125    1220
+
 
+
Here you will find a list of how all the pin muxes are set. There are some 125 of them!
+
How do you find which one is gpio0_7?
+
 
+
beagle$ '''grep gpio0_7 *'''
+
ecap0_in_pwm0_out:name: ecap0_in_pwm0_out.gpio0_7 (0x44e10964/0x964 = 0x0027), b NA, t NA
+
''ecap0_in_pwm0_out'':signals: ecap0_in_pwm0_out | uart3_txd | spi1_cs1 | pr1_ecap0_ecap_capin_apwm_o | spi1_sclk | mmc0_sdwp | xdma_event_intr2 | ''gpio0_7''
+
 
+
'''ecap0_in_pwm0_out''' is the file that contains gpio0_7.  Look up gpio0_7
+
 
+
beagle$ '''cat ecap0_in_pwm0_out'''
+
name: ecap0_in_pwm0_out.gpio0_7 (0x44e10964/0x964 = 0x0027), b NA, t NA
+
mode: ''OMAP_PIN_INPUT_PULLDOWN'' | OMAP_MUX_MODE7
+
signals: ecap0_in_pwm0_out | uart3_txd | spi1_cs1 | pr1_ecap0_ecap_capin_apwm_o | spi1_sclk | mmc0_sdwp | xdma_event_intr2 | gpio0_7
+
 
+
It's set to be a PULLDOWN.  Sectiion 9.2.2.2, Page 877 of the AM335x Technical Reference manual discusses Pull Selection and tells which bits do what.  The '''0x0027''' is the code that says which MODE is used and how the pull up/down resistor is set. (There seems to be a mismatch between the manual and the bone.  The manual says bit 3 of 0x0027 enables the pull up/down.  Bit 3 isn’t set, but the pull down is working.)
+
 
+
You can switch the gpio pin to pullup.  Try
+
 
+
beagle$ '''echo 0x0037 > ecap0_in_pwm0_out'''
+
beagle$ '''cat ecap0_in_pwm0_out'''
+
name: ecap0_in_pwm0_out.gpio0_7 (0x44e10964/0x964 = 0x0037), b NA, t NA
+
mode: OMAP_PIN_INPUT_PULLUP | OMAP_MUX_MODE7
+
signals: ecap0_in_pwm0_out | uart3_txd | spi1_cs1 | pr1_ecap0_ecap_capin_apwm_o | spi1_sclk | mmc0_sdwp | xdma_event_intr2 | gpio0_7
+
 
+
Does it act like a pullup resistor is attached?
+
  
 
=== Challenge ===
 
=== Challenge ===
  
 
* Can you modify the scripts above to read the switch and turn the LED on and off?
 
* Can you modify the scripts above to read the switch and turn the LED on and off?
* Rewire your switch to work with a pullup resistor.
 
  
== Analog in - bone ==
+
== Assignment: gpio from the shell ==
  
(This is based on [http://www.gigamegablog.com/2012/01/22/beaglebone-coding-101-using-the-serial-and-analog-pins/ this].)
+
=== <span style="color:green;">Measuring a gpio pin on an Oscilloscope</span> ===
  
The bone has eight Analog Inputs.  Several are exposed on P9.  They are labeled '''AIN''' in table 11 above.  How many do you find?
+
Get an oscilloscope so you can measure the output of your gpio pins.  Run
 
+
  beagle$ '''./togglegpio.sh 60 0.1'''
The AIN pins are sampled at 12 bits and 100k samples per second.  The input voltage is between 0 and 1.8V.  Fortunately, both voltages are available on P9.
+
 
+
The photo above shows a small potentiometer wired to the bone.  One end goes to the analog ground (pin 34), the other analog 1.8V (pin 32). The wiper is attached to '''AIN5''' which is pin 36.
+
 
+
You interact with the analog in much like the gpio, but it appears in a different location.  How do you find that location?  One approach is the '''find''' command.
+
 
+
beagle$ '''find / -name ain5'''
+
/sys/devices/platform/omap/tsc/ain5
+
/sys/kernel/debug/omap_mux/ain5
+
'''^C'''
+
 
+
I used '''Ctrl-C''' to interrupt since it already found what I wanted.
+
 
+
beagle$ '''cd /sys/devices/platform/tsc'''
+
beagle$ '''ls'''
+
ain1  ain3  ain5  ain7  driver    power      uevent
+
ain2  ain4  ain6  ain8  modalias  subsystem
+
 
+
There are the various analog inputs, but watch out.  This interface starts numbering at '''1''' and Table 11 starts at '''0''', so to read AIN5 you need to look at '''ain6'''!
+
 
+
beagle$ '''cat ain6'''
+
1185
+
 
+
(Unfortunately the interface doesn't print a RETURN after the value.)
+
Change the pot and rerun the cat.  What's the min and max value you get?  Is it 12 bits?
+
 
+
=== Challenge ===
+
Rewrite the scripts from before to read an AIN pin and continuously display it's value.
+
 
+
== Reading a gpio pin with an Oscilloscope - xM ==
+
 
+
You can easily access many of the gpio pins via the Main Expansion Header.  Page 107 of the [http://beagleboard.org/static/BBxMSRM_latest.pdf BeagleBoard-xM System Reference Manual] has this figure.
+
[[File:MainHeader.png | 750px]]
+
 
+
Unfortunately the gpio pins don't appear hereIt turns out the processor has more internal I/O lines than it has physical pins.  Each physical pin can can be connected to up to 8 internal lines.  [[BeagleBoardPinMux]] does a nice job of explaining it all.  The big clue is here [[BeagleBoardPinMux#Beagle]] which references Table 22 on page 108 of the -xM [http://beagleboard.org/static/BBSRM_latest.pdf System Reference Manual].
+
 
+
[[File:ExpansionSignals.png‎]]
+
 
+
Note that gpio130 appears on pin 21 of the Expansion Header. Also note that pins 27 and 28 are ground.  Attach your scope probe to these.  Now, let's put a signal on the pin.
+
 
+
  beagle$ '''cd /sys/class/gpio'''
+
beagle$ '''ls -F'''
+
export      gpiochip128@  gpiochip192@  gpiochip64@  unexport
+
gpiochip0@  gpiochip160@  gpiochip32@  gpiochip96@
+
 
+
Notice there is no folder for gpio130. Create it with:
+
 
+
beagle$ '''echo 130 > export'''
+
beagle$ '''ls -F'''
+
export    gpiochip0@    gpiochip160@  gpiochip32@  gpiochip96@
+
gpio130@  gpiochip128@  gpiochip192@  gpiochip64@  unexport
+
 
+
Update your exercises folder and cd to gpio directory.
+
 
+
  beagle$ '''cd'''
+
  beagle$ '''cd exercises/gpio'''
+
  beagle$ '''git pull'''
+
  beagle$ '''gedit togglegpio.sh'''
+
 
+
Can you tell what the program is doing?  Try running it:
+
 
+
beagle$ '''togglegpio 130 0.05'''
+
 
+
Note that if you are the root user (which is the default case for Angstrom), you will have to type the following command:
+
 
+
beagle$ '''./togglegpio 130 0.05'''
+
 
+
The first argument tells which gpio port to toggle, the second tells how long to delay between toggling.  In this example 0.05 s is 50 ms, which should give a period around 100ms. Measure the signal on an oscilloscope.
+
 
+
== Assignment: gpio from the shell ==
+
 
+
=== <span style="color:green;">Measuring a gpio pin on an Oscilloscope </span> ===
+
  
Answer the following questions about gpio measurements.
+
and answer the following questions about gpio measurements.
  
 
# What's the min and max voltage?   
 
# What's the min and max voltage?   
Line 292: Line 157:
 
# How stable is the period?   
 
# How stable is the period?   
 
# Try launching something like '''mplayer'''. How stable is the period?
 
# Try launching something like '''mplayer'''. How stable is the period?
# Try cleaning up togglegpio and removing unneeded lines.  Does it impact the period?
+
# Try cleaning up togglegpio.sh and removing unneeded lines.  Does it impact the period?
 
# togglegpio uses bash (first line in file).  Try using sh.  Is the period shorter?
 
# togglegpio uses bash (first line in file).  Try using sh.  Is the period shorter?
 
# What's the shortest period you can get?
 
# What's the shortest period you can get?
Line 298: Line 163:
 
=== Toggling the LEDs ===
 
=== Toggling the LEDs ===
  
Modify togglegpio (call it toggleLED) to toggle the LEDs.  Can you get the LED to appear to dim by changing the duty cycle of the toggling?
+
Modify togglegpio.sh (call it toggleLED) to toggle the on-board LEDs.  Can you get the LED to appear to dim by changing the duty cycle of the toggling?
 
+
=== User Button to gpio 130 ===
+
 
+
Write a shell script that reads the User Button and outputs it value on gpio pin 130.
+
  
 
=== Count the User Button Presses ===
 
=== Count the User Button Presses ===
  
Write a shell script that displays a count of the number of times the User Button has been pressed.
+
Write a shell script that displays a count of the number of times the Button has been pressed.
 
+
=== Copy gpio 130 to gpio 131 ===
+
 
+
Write a shell script that copies the value of gpio pin 130 to gpio pin 131.  How much CPU time does it take?  What's the delay from the time the input changes until the output changes?  How constant is the delay?
+
 
+
== Additional Exercises ==
+
 
+
=== Reading the Keyboard and Mouse ===
+
Try this:
+
 
+
beagle$ '''cd /sys/class/input'''
+
beagle$ '''ls -F'''
+
beagle$ '''evtest /dev/input/event2'''
+
Hit ctrl-C to stop
+
 
+
Now move your mouse around, or try you keyboard.  My mouse is plugged into the bottom left USB port and event2 responds to it.  Where do your keyboard and mouse appear?
+
 
+
=== Reading the User Button ===
+
('''Note''': This may not work on some versions of the OS. In these versions another program is controlling the gpio port that the User button is attached to.)
+
 
+
The Beagle has a couple of push buttons. One reboots the whole board.  Use with care.  One is for you to use, it's to the right of the Reset button, between the two stacks of USB ports.
+
[[File:BeagleUserButton.png]]
+
 
+
It's attached to gpio port 4.  You can read it via:
+
 
+
beagle$ '''cd /sys/class/gpio'''
+
beagle$ '''ls -F'''
+
export    gpio133@  gpio137@  gpio141@      gpiochip160@  gpiochip96@
+
gpio130@  gpio134@  gpio138@  gpio162@      gpiochip192@  unexport
+
gpio131@  gpio135@  gpio139@  gpiochip0@    gpiochip32@
+
gpio132@  gpio136@  gpio140@  gpiochip128@  gpiochip64@
+
 
+
Notice there is no gpio4.  Here's how you can create it, set it to an input port and read its value:
+
 
+
beagle$ '''echo 4 > export'''
+
beagle$ '''ls'''
+
beagle$ '''cd gpio4'''
+
beagle$ '''echo in > direction'''
+
beagle$ '''cat value'''
+
 
+
Try holding down the switch and doing <code>cat value</code> again.  Does the value change?  There's a shell script called '''readgpio''' that repeatedly reads the switch.
+
  
beagle$ '''readgpio 4'''
+
=== Copy gpio 7 to gpio 60===
  
Try pushing the switch.  Does it workHit ctrl-C to stop.  Look at readgpio. How does it work?
+
Write a shell script that copies the value of gpio pin 7 (your switch) to gpio pin 60 (Your LED)How much CPU time does it takeWhat's the delay from the time the input changes until the output changes? How constant is the delay?
  
beagle$ '''which readgpio'''
+
You may need to get a function generator and set it to a square wave (0 to 3.3V) and attach it to pin 7 and attached an oscilloscope to pin 60.
beagle$ '''cp /usr/bin/readgpio ~'''
+
beagle$ '''gedit ~/readgpio'''
+
  
 
== Resources ==
 
== Resources ==

Revision as of 19:09, 6 June 2013

thumb‎ Embedded Linux Class by Mark A. Yoder


3.8 Kernel

This page is for the Bone (Black or White) running the 3.8 Kernel. See EBC_Exercise_10_Flashing_an_LED_-_xM_WhiteBone for the White Bone or xM running 3.2.

The "Hello World" program is the traditional first program for many classes. Flashing an LED is the embedded equivalent. Here we will explore a few ways to flash and LED on the Beagle and explore General Purpose I/O (gpio) along the way. These calls will be done from the command line of the Beagle, so there is no need for the host computer.

gpio via the Shell Command Line and sysfs

(Note: Draw the new diagrams with this.)

The easiest way to do general purpose I/O (gpio) on the Beagle is through a terminal window and a shell prompt. In Linux, almost everything is treated as a file, even things that aren't files. In our class we'll use a virtual file system called sysfs. sysfs exposes the drivers for the hardware so you get easily use them.

Try this, open a terminal and type:

beagle$ cd /sys
beagle$ ls -F
block/  bus/  class/  dev/  devices/  firmware/  fs/  kernel/  module/  power/

Here we see several directories that represent hardware we can control. Explore a bit and see what you find.

Now try:

beagle$ cd /sys/class
beagle$ ls -F
backlight/  firmware/     lcd/       mtd/           scsi_disk/   ubi/
bdi/        gpio/         leds/      net/           scsi_host/   udc/
block/      graphics/     mbox/      power_supply/  sound/       uio/
bluetooth/  hwmon/        mdio_bus/  regulator/     spi_master/  usbmon/
bsg/        i2c-adapter/  mem/       rfkill/        spidev/      vc/
dma/        i2c-dev/      misc/      rtc/           thermal/     vtconsole/
drm/        input/        mmc_host/  scsi_device/   tty/         watchdog/

Explore some. What do you find? In graphics you will see the frame buffer supported by the processor. In sound you'll see the alsa sound devices.

Flashing the user LEDs

The Beagle Black has four user LEDS, user0 - user3, that you can control. Try this:

beagle$ cd /sys/class/leds
beagle$ ls -F
beaglebone:green:usr0  beaglebone:green:usr2
beaglebone:green:usr1  beaglebone:green:usr3

Here you see the directories for controlling each of the usr LEDs. By default, usr0 flashes a heartbeat pattern and usr1 flashes when the micro SD card is accessed. Let's control usr0.

beagle$ cd beagleboard\:\:usr0
beagle$ ls -F
brightness  device@  max_brightness  power/  subsystem@  trigger  uevent

See what's in brightness, max_brightness and trigger by using the cat command. For example:

beagle$ cat trigger
none nand-disk mmc0 timer oneshot [heartbeat] backlight gpio cpu0 default-on transient

This shows trigger can have many values. The present value is heartbeat. Check the LED, is it beating? You can stop the heartbeat via:

beagle$ echo none > trigger
beagle$ cat trigger
[none] nand-disk mmc0 timer oneshot heartbeat backlight gpio cpu0 default-on transient 

Did it stop beating? You can now turn it on and off with:

beagle$ echo 1 > brightness
beagle$ echo 0 > brightness

Is it responding correctly?

The Bone has more trigger options. Try:

beagle$ cat trigger
[none] mmc0 timer heartbeat backlight gpio default-on 
beagle$ echo timer > trigger
beagle$ ls -F
brightness  delay_on  max_brightness  subsystem@  uevent
delay_off   device@   power/          trigger
beagle$ echo 100 > delay_on
beagle$ echo 900 > delay_off

What does this do?

Adding your own LED

It's not hard to use the gpio pins to control your own LED. All you need is an LED and a 220Ω resistor. Here's a picture of how it's wired. We are just doing the LED at the top of the breadboard for now.

Bone gpio.JPG BoneGPIO.png

So how do you know where to connect it? The BeagleBone System Reference Manual has the details. Figure 45 on page 74 shows:

BlackHeaders.jpg

There at two expansion headers, P8 and P9. Look at the bottom of the left header and you'll see it's labeled P9. Table 11 on page 78 shows the pinout for P9.

HeaderP9.jpg

On the first photo above you can see that pin 1 (Ground) is wired to the - bus and pin 3 (3.3V) is wired to the + bus. The 220Ω resistor is wired to the - bus and the other end is attached to the negative lead of the LED. The positive lead is attached to pin 12 which, as shown in Table 11, is attached to gpio1_28. The gpio pins are in banks of 32 each, so to find the gpio number to use on the Beagle, use 1*32+28=60. Here's how you turn it on

beagle$ cd /sys/class/gpio
beagle$ ls -F
export  gpiochip0@  gpiochip32@  gpiochip64@  gpiochip96@  unexport

Presently no gpio pins are visible. You need to tell it which pin to export

beagle$ echo 60 > export
beagle$ ls -F
export  gpio60@  gpiochip0@  gpiochip32@  gpiochip64@  gpiochip96@  unexport

Notice gpio60 has appeared. All we need to do is tell it which direction and then turn it on.

beagle$ cd gpio60
beagle$ echo out > direction
beagle$ echo 1 > value

Your LED should be on! When you are done you can unexport the pin and it will disappear.

beagle$ cd ..
beagle$ echo 60 > unexport

Reading a switch

Now that you have an LED working, wiring in a switch is easy. The picture above shows a push button switch wired in at the bottom of the P9 header. Attach the + bus to one pole on the switch with a wire. The other end of the switch is attached to pin 42 which is gpio0_7.

Based on what you saw above, show how to read the switch.

Once you have the switch and LED working you can use the following scripts to play with them.

beagle$ cd ~/exercises/gpio
beagle$ ./togglegpio.sh 60 0.1

The LED should be blinking on and off.

beagle$ ./readgpio.sh 7

Push the pushbutton and see what happens.

How can this work without a pulldown resistor? It turns out the Bone has an internal pulldown (and up) resistor that can be software enabled. We'll discuss how when we cover device trees.

Challenge

  • Can you modify the scripts above to read the switch and turn the LED on and off?

Assignment: gpio from the shell

Measuring a gpio pin on an Oscilloscope

Get an oscilloscope so you can measure the output of your gpio pins. Run

beagle$ ./togglegpio.sh 60 0.1

and answer the following questions about gpio measurements.

  1. What's the min and max voltage?
  2. What period is it?
  3. How close is it to 100ms?
  4. Why do they differ?
  5. Run htop and see how much processor you are using.
  6. Try different values for the sleep time (2nd argument). What's the shortest period you can get? Make a table of the values you try and the corresponding period and processor usage.
  7. How stable is the period?
  8. Try launching something like mplayer. How stable is the period?
  9. Try cleaning up togglegpio.sh and removing unneeded lines. Does it impact the period?
  10. togglegpio uses bash (first line in file). Try using sh. Is the period shorter?
  11. What's the shortest period you can get?

Toggling the LEDs

Modify togglegpio.sh (call it toggleLED) to toggle the on-board LEDs. Can you get the LED to appear to dim by changing the duty cycle of the toggling?

Count the User Button Presses

Write a shell script that displays a count of the number of times the Button has been pressed.

Copy gpio 7 to gpio 60

Write a shell script that copies the value of gpio pin 7 (your switch) to gpio pin 60 (Your LED). How much CPU time does it take? What's the delay from the time the input changes until the output changes? How constant is the delay?

You may need to get a function generator and set it to a square wave (0 to 3.3V) and attach it to pin 7 and attached an oscilloscope to pin 60.

Resources

  1. Here is wh1ts article on flashing an LED. It is referenced in the readgpio file that comes on the Beagle.
  2. This Make magazine article has a few more details.
  3. Here in a gpio reference for Linux in general. It includes sample 'C' code for flashing at 1 Hz.
  4. Here is a posting in the Beagle Google group about gpio.
  5. Here is some information about gpio from the kernel point of view.
  6. Here is some info on a GPIO Event Driver
  7. Here is info on how to set edge to falling and poll() the pin.
  8. Here is the kernel Documentation on gpio.




thumb‎ Embedded Linux Class by Mark A. Yoder