Difference between revisions of "EBC Exercise 13 Pulse Width Modulation"

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In a previous exercise ([[EBC Exercise 11 gpio Polling and Interrupts]]) you saw how to use the gpio to produce a square wave out using a C program and sysfs. I was able to get a 1.5kHz square wave out; however we can do much better using some built in hardware on the Beagle.
 
In a previous exercise ([[EBC Exercise 11 gpio Polling and Interrupts]]) you saw how to use the gpio to produce a square wave out using a C program and sysfs. I was able to get a 1.5kHz square wave out; however we can do much better using some built in hardware on the Beagle.
  
In this exercise you will learn how to use the Beagle's pulse width modulation (pwm) hardware using the sysfs interface and also learn about pin multiplexing (pin mux) on the way.
+
In this exercise you will learn how to use the Beagle's pulse width modulation (pwm) hardware using the sysfs interface.
  
 
== PWM on the Bone ==
 
== PWM on the Bone ==
 +
 +
(Note: The pwm interface seems to changing. Some of this may not apply in the future.)
  
 
The Bone has a PWM interface at <code>/sys/class/pwm/</code>. You can see what's there by:
 
The Bone has a PWM interface at <code>/sys/class/pwm/</code>. You can see what's there by:
Line 14: Line 16:
 
  beagle$ '''cd /sys/class/pwm'''
 
  beagle$ '''cd /sys/class/pwm'''
 
  beagle$ '''ls -F'''
 
  beagle$ '''ls -F'''
  ecap.0@ ecap.2@      ehrpwm.0:1@ ehrpwm.1:1ehrpwm.2:1@
+
  export  unexport
  ecap.1@  ehrpwm.0:0ehrpwm.1:0@ ehrpwm.2:0@
+
Hmmm, there isn't much thereWe have to run a command to make something appear. Try
 +
beagle$ '''SLOTS=/sys/devices/bone_capemgr.*/slots'''
 +
  beagle$ '''PINS=/sys/kernel/debug/pinctrl/44e10800.pinmux/pins'''
 +
beagle$ '''echo am33xx_pwm > $SLOTS'''
 +
beagle$ '''ls -F'''
 +
export  pwmchip0pwmchip2@ pwmchip3@  pwmchip5@  pwmchip7@  unexport
 +
Now we need to run another command to say which pwm pin we want to use. I'm using P9_21.
 +
beagle$ '''echo bone_pwm_P9_21 > $SLOTS
 +
Now you can export a pwm much list you export a gpio port
 +
beagle$ '''echo 1 > export'''
 +
beagle$ '''cd pwm1'''
 +
beagle$ '''ls -F'''
 +
deviceduty_ns  period_ns  polarity  power/  run  subsystemuevent
 +
Try a 1kHz frequency with a 25% duty cycle
 +
beagle$ '''echo 1000000 > period_ns'''
 +
beagle$ '''echo  250000 > duty_ns'''
 +
beagle$ '''echo 1 > run'''
 +
If you have an oscilloscope try probing pin P9_21. I'm getting a nice clean 1kHz signal, with no variation. Let's try a higher frequency, like 10 MHz.
 +
beagle$ '''echo  50 > duty_ns'''
 +
beagle$ '''echo 100 > period_ns'''
 +
I'm getting a 9 MHz signal that has lots of ringing. The timer in the bone must be off a bit.
  
The [http://processors.wiki.ti.com/index.php/AM335x_PWM_Driver's_Guide AM335x PWM Driver's Guide] details what eCAP and eHRPWM are and gives some examples.  Before you can use the PWM's, you need to make sure the pin MUXes are set correctly. There are two ways to do this, the slick way (which may not work) and the sure way.
 
  
=== The Sure Way ===
+
The [http://processors.wiki.ti.com/index.php/AM335x_PWM_Driver's_Guide AM335x PWM Driver's Guide] details what eCAP and eHRPWM are and gives some examples. 
  
beagle$ '''cd ~/exercises/pinMux'''
+
Connect the LED from and watch it flash.  Try changing the frequency and duty cycle.  You may have to set the duty cycle to 0 to change the frequency.  Can you guess why?
beagle$ '''./pinMux.sh'''
+
 
+
This just lists all the files in the mux directory and their contents.
+
 
+
=== Either Way ===
+
 
+
This just lists every find in the mux directory. 
+
 
+
You can control the pin MUXing this way:
+
 
+
beagle$ '''cd /sys/kernel/debug/omap_mux'''
+
beagle$ '''ls'''
+
ain0              gpmc_ad2        lcd_data3      mii1_txd2
+
ain1              gpmc_ad3        lcd_data4      mii1_txd3
+
ain2              gpmc_ad4        lcd_data5      mii1_txen
+
ain3              gpmc_ad5        lcd_data6      mmc0_clk
+
ain4              gpmc_ad6        lcd_data7      mmc0_cmd
+
ain5              gpmc_ad7        lcd_data8      mmc0_dat0
+
ain6              gpmc_ad8        lcd_data9      mmc0_dat1
+
ain7              gpmc_ad9        lcd_hsync      mmc0_dat2
+
...
+
 
+
There are some 126 pins that you can control what they output.  How do you know which one to change?  Let's use ehrpwm.1:0.  This will show up at ehrpwm1A (the 0 maps to A).  Try:
+
 
+
beagle$ grep ehrpwm *
+
gpmc_a0:signals: gpmc_a0 | gmii2_txen | rgmii2_tctl | rmii2_txen | gpmc_a16 | pr1_mii_mt1_clk | ehrpwm1_tripzone_input | gpio1_16
+
gpmc_a1:signals: gpmc_a1 | gmii2_rxdv | rgmii2_rctl | mmc2_dat0 | gpmc_a17 | pr1_mii1_txd3 | ehrpwm0_synco | gpio1_17
+
'''gpmc_a2''':signals: gpmc_a2 | gmii2_txd3 | rgmii2_td3 | mmc2_dat1 | gpmc_a18 | pr1_mii1_txd2 | '''ehrpwm1A''' | gpio1_18
+
gpmc_a3:signals: gpmc_a3 | gmii2_txd2 | rgmii2_td2 | mmc2_dat2 | gpmc_a19 | pr1_mii1_txd1 | ehrpwm1B | gpio1_19
+
...
+
This shows that '''ehrpwm1A''' shows up in the file '''gpmc_a2'''. Look in the file
+
beagle$ '''cat gpmc_a2'''
+
name: gpmc_a2.gpio1_18 (0x44e10848/0x848 = 0x0007), b NA, t NA
+
mode: OMAP_PIN_OUTPUT | '''OMAP_MUX_MODE7'''
+
signals: gpmc_a2 | gmii2_txd3 | rgmii2_td3 | mmc2_dat1 | gpmc_a18 | pr1_mii1_txd2 | ehrpwm1A | gpio1_18
+
 
+
This says the MUX is presently set on pin '''7'''.  Counting starts on the left with 0.  We want pin '''6'''. So:
+
 
+
beagle$ '''echo 6 > gpmc_a2'''
+
beagle$ '''cat gpmc_a2'''
+
name: gpmc_a2.ehrpwm1A (0x44e10848/0x848 = 0x0006), b NA, t NA
+
mode: OMAP_PIN_OUTPUT | '''OMAP_MUX_MODE6'''
+
signals: gpmc_a2 | gmii2_txd3 | rgmii2_td3 | mmc2_dat1 | gpmc_a18 | pr1_mii1_txd2 | '''ehrpwm1A''' | gpio1_18
+
 
+
Now it's mode 6, which is the PWM output.  Refresh you pin MUX web page to see.
+
 
+
[[File:PinMux2.png]]
+
 
+
Notice header P9, pin 14 has changed!  Now let's turn on the PWM.
+
 
+
beagle$ '''cd /sys/class/pwm/ehrpwm.1\:0'''
+
beagle$ '''echo 1 > run'''
+
beagle$ '''echo 10 > period_freq'''
+
beagle$ '''echo 25 > duty_percent'''
+
 
+
Note: If these command cause the SSH connection to close, you may have to get a newer version of Angstrom. Follow the instructions at [[EBC_Exercise_03_Installing_a_Beagle_OS]] and try it again.
+
 
+
Connect the LED from [[EBC_Exercise_10_Flashing_an_LED#Adding_your_own_LED_-_bone]] and watch it flash.  Try changing the frequency and duty cycle.  You may have to set the duty cycle to 0 to change the frequency.  Can you guess why?
+
  
 
Stick a scope on the pin and see if the frequency and duty cycle are right.  What's the highest frequency you can get? What's the lowest?
 
Stick a scope on the pin and see if the frequency and duty cycle are right.  What's the highest frequency you can get? What's the lowest?
 
[https://groups.google.com/forum/#!searchin/beagleboard/bone$20pwm/beagleboard/alKf67dwMHI/t_tIQpJyM8wJ Good discussion]
 
 
=== Assignment ===
 
 
If your git repository is set up just:
 
beagle$ '''cd exercises'''
 
beagle$ '''git pull'''
 
beagle$ '''cd pwm'''
 
(Follow the instructions [[EBC_Exercise_01a_Getting_Exercise_Support_Materials | here]] if you aren't set up for git.)
 
 
# Attach an LED and verify that it's blinking correctly.
 
# Hook up a oscilloscope. Are the PWM outputs doing what you expected?
 
# What's the highest frequency you can generate?  What's the lowest?
 
# Verify your understanding of pin MUXing by generating a PWM signal that appears on pin 45 of P8.  Document how you did it.
 
 
== PWM on the xM ==
 
'''This section needs updating to use /sys/kernel/debug/omap_mux to get the pin MUXes.'''
 
 
The DM3730 has 11 general purpose timers, 4 of which (gpt8-gpt11) can be brought out of the chip and used for pulse width modulation ([http://www.ti.com/product/dm3730#technicaldocuments DM3730 TRM page 2689]). The problem is the DM3730 has more internal lines than hardware I/O pins.  The solution is that I/O pins run though a MUX that selects which internal lines appear on I/O pins.  A given pin can have one from as many as eight lines assigned to it. 
 
 
These MUXes are set at boot time, and must be set when the kernel boots, or in u-boot.  I couldn't set them during kernel boot with the 2.6.32 kernel, so I used u-boot.  [[BeagleBoardPinMux]] is a good place to learn about the pin MUXing. The u-boot details are [[BeagleBoardPinMux#Setting_Mux_Through_u-boot | here]].
 
 
[[BeagleBoardPWM]] is a nice overview of how to do PWM on the Beagle.  The version of the kernel and u-boot that I've given you should already be configured to access the PWM pins. If it isn't you'll have to recompile the Kernel and u-boot.
 
 
The standard way to interface with the outside world in Linux is through Kernel Drivers. Currently there are no standard PWM driver for the Beagle, though a couple have been proposed ([https://groups.google.com/d/topic/beagleboard/RI3qTxn68bY/discussion], [http://git.billgatliff.com/pwm.git/?p=pwm.git;a=commit;h=a49cbfff0fa09bff40d328f8985a0a7a7b951d6f] and [http://git.pengutronix.de/?p=imx/linux-2.6.git;a=commit;h=137654cde98a2ffe548f47f02e7fde512bc2091c]). [[BeagleBoardPWM]] takes a more traditional MCU approach by accessing the memory mapped PWD registers directly using '''mmap''' in a C program. Although this approach works, it is really transitional until a standard can be established. 
 
 
You could even do PWM from a shell command by using [http://esdw.wordpress.com/2010/03/25/a-useful-tool-devmem2/ devmem2] to write to the memory mapped registers from a command line.
 
 
[http://www.jumpnowtek.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=56&Itemid=63 Here's] another PWM lead.
 
 
=== Assignment ===
 
 
If your git repository is set up just:
 
beagle$ '''cd exercises'''
 
beagle$ '''git pull'''
 
beagle$ '''cd pwm'''
 
(Follow the instructions [[EBC_Exercise_01a_Getting_Exercise_Support_Materials | here]] if you aren't set up for git.)
 
 
# Look at the files to see what they are doing.
 
# Run '''make''', then '''pwm-demo'''. 
 
# Hook up a oscilloscope.  (See Table 22 of the [http://beagleboard.org/static/BBxMSRM_latest.pdf Beagle System Reference manual] to see where to probe.) Are the pwm outputs doing what you expected?
 
# What's the highest frequency you can generate?  What's the lowest?
 
# Create a new C program, based on pwm-demo, that takes 3 parameters, the <pwm to use>, <frequency> and <duty cycle>.
 
# Create a shell file that will call your new program and set up the three pwm's that appear on the expansion header and program them to do something interesting.
 
# Write a shell file that will do the pin MUXing using '''devmem2'''.
 
# Rewrite '''pwm-demo''' as a shell file that uses '''devmem2'''.
 
 
== Resources ==
 
 
# [[BeagleBoardPWM]] from ECE597
 
# [[BeagleBoard/GSoC/2010_Projects/Pulse_Width_Modulation]]  Google SoC project
 
# [[BeagleBoardPinMux]], how to set the pin mux.
 
# [http://www.gigamegablog.com/ Buttons and PWM]
 
# [http://veter-project.blogspot.com/2011/09/real-time-enough-about-pwms-and-shaky.html Shaky PWMs]
 
# [https://groups.google.com/forum/#!searchin/beagleboard/bone$20pwm/beagleboard/alKf67dwMHI/t_tIQpJyM8wJ PWM on the bone]
 
  
 
{{YoderFoot}}
 
{{YoderFoot}}

Revision as of 16:34, 31 May 2013

thumb‎ Embedded Linux Class by Mark A. Yoder


3.8 Kernel

This is for the 3.8 kernel. EBC Exercise 13 Pulse Width Modulation 3.2 is for the 3.2 kernel.

In a previous exercise (EBC Exercise 11 gpio Polling and Interrupts) you saw how to use the gpio to produce a square wave out using a C program and sysfs. I was able to get a 1.5kHz square wave out; however we can do much better using some built in hardware on the Beagle.

In this exercise you will learn how to use the Beagle's pulse width modulation (pwm) hardware using the sysfs interface.

PWM on the Bone

(Note: The pwm interface seems to changing. Some of this may not apply in the future.)

The Bone has a PWM interface at /sys/class/pwm/. You can see what's there by:

beagle$ cd /sys/class/pwm
beagle$ ls -F
export  unexport

Hmmm, there isn't much there. We have to run a command to make something appear. Try

beagle$ SLOTS=/sys/devices/bone_capemgr.*/slots
beagle$ PINS=/sys/kernel/debug/pinctrl/44e10800.pinmux/pins
beagle$ echo am33xx_pwm > $SLOTS
beagle$ ls -F
export  pwmchip0@  pwmchip2@  pwmchip3@  pwmchip5@  pwmchip7@  unexport

Now we need to run another command to say which pwm pin we want to use. I'm using P9_21.

beagle$ echo bone_pwm_P9_21 > $SLOTS

Now you can export a pwm much list you export a gpio port

beagle$ echo 1 > export
beagle$ cd pwm1
beagle$ ls -F
device@  duty_ns  period_ns  polarity  power/  run  subsystem@  uevent

Try a 1kHz frequency with a 25% duty cycle

beagle$ echo 1000000 > period_ns
beagle$ echo  250000 > duty_ns
beagle$ echo 1 > run

If you have an oscilloscope try probing pin P9_21. I'm getting a nice clean 1kHz signal, with no variation. Let's try a higher frequency, like 10 MHz.

beagle$ echo  50 > duty_ns
beagle$ echo 100 > period_ns

I'm getting a 9 MHz signal that has lots of ringing. The timer in the bone must be off a bit.


The AM335x PWM Driver's Guide details what eCAP and eHRPWM are and gives some examples.

Connect the LED from and watch it flash. Try changing the frequency and duty cycle. You may have to set the duty cycle to 0 to change the frequency. Can you guess why?

Stick a scope on the pin and see if the frequency and duty cycle are right. What's the highest frequency you can get? What's the lowest?




thumb‎ Embedded Linux Class by Mark A. Yoder