Difference between revisions of "EBC Exercise 28 Remote gdb and more"

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[[Category:ECE497]]
 
[[Category:ECE497]]
 +
{{YoderHead}}
  
There are many handy tools to know how to use.
+
This is a continuation of the earlier gdb lab.  In the past lab we did local execution on the BeagleBoard.  Here we'll do  remote execution with gdb running on your host and debugging code on your Beagle.
  
== gdb ==
+
=== Installing gdb ===
  
gdb, the [http://www.gnu.org/software/gdb/ GNU Project debugger], allows you to see what is going on ''inside'' another program while it executes -- or what another program was doing at the moment it crashed.
+
You should already have this, but if not. On your host computer run:
  
gdb can do four main kinds of things to help you catch bugs in the act:
+
host$ '''apt-get install gdb'''
  
* Start your program, specifying anything that might affect its behavior.
+
On your Beagle run:
* Make your program stop on specified conditions.
+
* Examine what has happened, when your program has stopped.
+
* Change things in your program, so you can experiment with correcting the effects of one bug and go on to learn about another.
+
  
The program being debugged can be written in Ada, C, C++, Objective-C, Pascal (and many other languages). Those programs might be executing on the same machine as GDB (native) or on another machine (remote). GDB can run on most popular UNIX and Microsoft Windows variants.
+
beagle$ '''opkg install gdb gdbserver'''
  
For our lab we'll be using a C program and do both local execution on the BeagleBoard and remote execution with gdb running on your host and debugging code on your Beagle.
+
=== The Sample Program ===
  
=== Installing gdb ===
+
You can get the sample program via git on both your host and Beagle.
  
On your host computer run:
+
host$ '''git clone git@github.com:MarkAYoder/BeagleBoard-exercises.git exercises'''
<pre>
+
beagle$ '''git clone git@github.com:MarkAYoder/BeagleBoard-exercises.git exercises'''
$ apt-get install gdb
+
</pre>
+
host$ '''cd exerciese/gdbExample'''
On your Beagle run:
+
host$ '''gedit Makefile'''
<pre>
+
$ opkg install gdb gdbserver
+
</pre>
+
  
=== The Sample Program ===
+
Edit the '''Makefile''' and correct '''ARM_TOOLCHAIN_PATH''' for your machine.  Also search for '''install:''' and fix it for your beagle.
  
You can get the sample program from dfs.
+
host$ '''make all install'''
  
<pre>
+
This will compile the code and '''scp''' it to your Beagle. You've just compiled a program that performs a complex fft on random data.  It's main purpose is to see how fast it runs on the Beagle. (In case you are interested, I added to rule so you can compile it for your host computer.  Try '''make x86''' and compare the times on your host to those on the Beagle.)
$ sftp dfs.rose-hulman.edu
+
Connecting to dfs.rose-hulman.edu...
+
yoder@dfs.rose-hulman.edu's password:
+
sftp> cd users/y/yoder/shared/beagleboard                                                                           
+
sftp> get gdbExample.tar.gz
+
sftp> exit
+
$ tar xvf gdbExample.tar.gz
+
gdbExample/
+
gdbExample/cfft.c
+
gdbExample/main_bench.c
+
gdbExample/changelog
+
gdbExample/distance.c
+
gdbExample/cfft.h
+
gdbExample/README
+
gdbExample/distance.h
+
gdbExample/common.h
+
gdbExample/Makefile
+
gdbExample/main_cfft.c
+
$ cd gdbExample
+
$ gedit Makefile
+
</pre>
+
Edit the '''Makefile''' and correct '''ARM_TOOLCHAIN_PATH''' for your machine.  Also search for '''install:''' and fix it for your beagle.
+
<pre>
+
$ make all install
+
</pre>
+
This will compile the code and '''scp''' to your Beagle. You've just compiled a program that performs a complex fft on random data.  It's main purpose is to see how fast it runs on the Beagle. (In case you are interested, I added to rule so you can compile it for your host computer.  Try '''make x86''' and compare the times on your host to those on the Beagle.)
+
  
 
The program takes several seconds to run on the Beagle, so you may want to edit the code so it doesn't run so many iterations.
 
The program takes several seconds to run on the Beagle, so you may want to edit the code so it doesn't run so many iterations.
Line 67: Line 36:
 
On your Beagle try:
 
On your Beagle try:
  
<pre>
+
beagle$ '''gdb cfft_arm'''
$ gdb cfft_arm
+
GNU gdb (GDB) 7.2
gdb cfft_arm
+
Copyright (C) 2010 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
GNU gdb (GDB) 7.1
+
License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>
Copyright (C) 2010 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
+
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.
License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>
+
There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.  Type "show copying"
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.
+
and "show warranty" for details.
There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.  Type "show copying"
+
This GDB was configured as "arm-angstrom-linux-gnueabi".
and "show warranty" for details.
+
For bug reporting instructions, please see:
This GDB was configured as "arm-angstrom-linux-gnueabi".
+
<http://www.gnu.org/software/gdb/bugs/>...
For bug reporting instructions, please see:
+
Reading symbols from /home/root/exercises/gdbExample/cfft_arm...done.
<http://www.gnu.org/software/gdb/bugs/>...
+
Reading symbols from /home/root/gdbExample/cfft_arm...done.
+
(gdb) '''b main'''
(gdb) b main
+
Breakpoint 1 at 0x8554
Breakpoint 1 at 0x8554
+
(gdb) '''r'''
(gdb) r
+
Starting program: /home/root/gdbExample/cfft_arm
Starting program: /home/root/gdbExample/cfft_arm  
+
 +
Breakpoint 1, 0x00008554 in main ()
  
Breakpoint 1, 0x00008554 in main ()
 
</pre>
 
 
When first starting gdb notice the line '''This GDB was configured as "arm-angstrom-linux-gnueabi'''.  This is a good sign.  The first command '''b main''' sets a breakpoint at '''main'''.  The next command '''r'''uns to that break point. Now lets look at our code a this point.  Try the list command.
 
When first starting gdb notice the line '''This GDB was configured as "arm-angstrom-linux-gnueabi'''.  This is a good sign.  The first command '''b main''' sets a breakpoint at '''main'''.  The next command '''r'''uns to that break point. Now lets look at our code a this point.  Try the list command.
<pre>
 
(gdb) l
 
1 /home/yoder/BeagleBoard/oe/build/tmp-angstrom_2008_1/work/armv7a-angstrom-linux-gnueabi/glibc-2.9-r36.3/build-arm-angstrom-linux-gnueabi/csu/crtn.S: No such file or directory.
 
in /home/yoder/BeagleBoard/oe/build/tmp-angstrom_2008_1/work/armv7a-angstrom-linux-gnueabi/glibc-2.9-r36.3/build-arm-angstrom-linux-gnueabi/csu/crtn.S
 
(gdb) quit
 
</pre>
 
Hmmm....  We have a problem.  For gdb to be most useful we need to tell gcc to include debugging information.  Back to your host computer and do an ls on cfft_arm and note it's size.  Mine is about 18k.  Next edit the '''Makefile''' and find '''ARM_CFLAGS''' and add '''-g'''.  The line should look like:
 
<pre>
 
ARM_CFLAGS = $(CFLAGS) -g
 
</pre>
 
Now clean everything and remake.
 
<pre>
 
$ make clean all install
 
$ ls -l cfft_arm
 
</pre>
 
How has the size of cfft_arm changed?
 
  
Back to the Beagle.  
+
  (gdb) '''l'''
<pre>
+
42 }
$ gdp cfft_arm
+
43
(gdb) b main
+
44 static complex *new_complex_vector(int size);
(gdb) r
+
45
(gdb) l
+
46 int main ()
42 }
+
47 {
43
+
48   int i;
44 static complex *new_complex_vector(int size);
+
49   int N, n;
45
+
50   int nTimes;
46 int main ()
+
51   float secs;
47 {
+
(gdb) '''n'''
48   int i;
+
56     complex *in = new_complex_vector(N);
49   int N, n;
+
(gdb) '''n'''
50   int nTimes;
+
57     complex *out = new_complex_vector(N);
51   float secs;
+
(gdb) '''n'''
(gdb) n
+
59     fft_init (N);
56     complex *in = new_complex_vector(N);
+
(gdb) '''p N'''
(gdb) n
+
$1 = 16
57     complex *out = new_complex_vector(N);
+
 
(gdb) n
+
59     fft_init (N);
+
(gdb) p N
+
$1 = 16
+
</pre>
+
 
Now '''l''' shows the code around the breakpoint.  If you aren't seeing code, be sure to '''scp''' your '''.c''' and '''.h''' files to the Beagle.
 
Now '''l''' shows the code around the breakpoint.  If you aren't seeing code, be sure to '''scp''' your '''.c''' and '''.h''' files to the Beagle.
  
 
The '''n''' steps to the next line in the program, the '''p''' command prints the variable that is listed.  Use the '''s''' command to step into a function.
 
The '''n''' steps to the next line in the program, the '''p''' command prints the variable that is listed.  Use the '''s''' command to step into a function.
<pre>
 
  
(gdb) s
+
(gdb) '''s'''
fft_init (N=16) at cfft.c:33
+
fft_init (N=16) at cfft.c:33
warning: Source file is more recent than executable.
+
 
33   tableW = malloc ((N / 2) * sizeof (complex));
 
33   tableW = malloc ((N / 2) * sizeof (complex));
(gdb) l
+
(gdb) '''l'''
28
+
28
29 void fft_init (int N)
+
29 void fft_init (int N)
30 {
+
30 {
31   int i, j;
+
31   int i, j;
32
+
32
33   tableW = malloc ((N / 2) * sizeof (complex));
+
33   tableW = malloc ((N / 2) * sizeof (complex));
34   bndx = malloc (N * sizeof (int));
+
34   bndx = malloc (N * sizeof (int));
35   ndx = malloc ((N / 2) * sizeof (int));
+
35   ndx = malloc ((N / 2) * sizeof (int));
36
+
36
37   ndx[0] = 0;
+
37   ndx[0] = 0;
</pre>
+
That's enough to get you around a bit.  '''help''' will get you information about more commands.  '''c''' will continue from where you stopped.
+
  
Try this:
+
That's enough to get you around a bit.  '''help''' will get you information about more commands.  '''c''' will continue from where you stopped.
<pre>
+
gdb cfft_arm
+
gdb) b fft_exec
+
(gdb) r
+
(gdb) n 4
+
(gdb) l
+
(gdb) p n
+
</pre>
+
We're in the '''fft_exec''' routine and have '''n'''ext'ed a in a way and then printed the value of '''n'''.  The '''main''' routine also has an '''n''', how do we see it's value?  It's on another stack frame, so do a backtrace to see what's on the stack and then select the frame we want.
+
<pre>
+
(gdb) bt
+
#0  fft_exec (N=16, in=0x12090) at cfft.c:80
+
#1  0x0000865c in main () at main_cfft.c:62
+
(gdb) f 1
+
#1  0x0000865c in main () at main_cfft.c:62
+
62     fft_exec (N, out);
+
(gdb) p n
+
$7 = <value optimized out>
+
(gdb) f 0
+
#0  fft_exec (N=16, in=0x12090) at cfft.c:80
+
80     for (k = 0; k < i; k++)
+
(gdb) p n
+
$8 = 16
+
</pre>
+
The '''f''' command selects the frame we want to inspect.  Notice in this case the value of '''n''' in '''main''' has been ''optimized out'', that means the compiler found a way to compile the code that didn't need to put '''n''' on the stackIn the '''Makefile''' you will find the '''-O3''' option will tells the compiler to optimize a lotTry removed the '''-O3''' and remaking everything and seeing if '''n''' appears in '''main'''.
+
  
 
=== gdb and core files ===
 
=== gdb and core files ===
  
Sometimes you have a program that stops running expectedly. gdb can help find where it quit and why. Let's insert a bug in the cfft program and see how gdb finds it. Edit cfft and replace this line near the bottom
+
Sometimes you have a program that stops running expectedly. gdb can help find where it quit and why. Let's find the bug in the cfft program.
<pre>
+
On the Beagle:
        a = j + r; // An error
+
 
</pre>
+
beagle $ '''./cfft_arm'''
with
+
Floating point exception
<pre>
+
        a = j + r/0; // An error
+
  
</pre>
 
so we will have a divide by zero error.  Remake and install
 
<pre>
 
$ make all install
 
</pre>
 
On the Beagle you should see:
 
<pre>
 
$ ./cfft_arm
 
Floating point exception
 
</pre>
 
 
Let the Beagle write a core file and see how gdb can use it
 
Let the Beagle write a core file and see how gdb can use it
<pre>
+
 
$ ulimit -c unlimited
+
beagle$ '''ulimit -c unlimited'''
$ ./cfft_arm  
+
beagle$ '''./cfft_arm'''
 
Floating point exception (core dumped)
 
Floating point exception (core dumped)
$ gdb ./cfft_arm core
+
beagle$ '''gdb ./cfft_arm core'''
GNU gdb (GDB) 7.1
+
GNU gdb (GDB) 7.2
Copyright (C) 2010 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
+
Copyright (C) 2010 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>
+
License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.
+
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.
There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.  Type "show copying"
+
There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.  Type "show copying"
and "show warranty" for details.
+
and "show warranty" for details.
This GDB was configured as "arm-angstrom-linux-gnueabi".
+
This GDB was configured as "arm-angstrom-linux-gnueabi".
For bug reporting instructions, please see:
+
For bug reporting instructions, please see:
<http://www.gnu.org/software/gdb/bugs/>...
+
<http://www.gnu.org/software/gdb/bugs/>...
Reading symbols from /home/root/gdbExample/cfft_arm...done.
+
Reading symbols from /home/root/exercises/gdbExample/cfft_arm...done.
[New Thread 3525]
+
[New Thread 30777]
Reading symbols from /lib/libm.so.6...(no debugging symbols found)...done.
+
Reading symbols from /lib/libm.so.6...Reading symbols from /lib/.debug/libm-2.9.so...done.
Loaded symbols for /lib/libm.so.6
+
done.
Reading symbols from /lib/libc.so.6...(no debugging symbols found)...done.
+
Loaded symbols for /lib/libm.so.6
Loaded symbols for /lib/libc.so.6
+
Reading symbols from /lib/libc.so.6...Reading symbols from /lib/.debug/libc-2.9.so...done.
Reading symbols from /lib/ld-linux.so.3...(no debugging symbols found)...done.
+
done.
Loaded symbols for /lib/ld-linux.so.3
+
Loaded symbols for /lib/libc.so.6
Core was generated by `./cfft_arm'.
+
Reading symbols from /lib/ld-linux.so.3...Reading symbols from /lib/.debug/ld-2.9.so...done.
Program terminated with signal 8, Arithmetic exception.
+
done.
#0  0x400c35fc in raise () from /lib/libc.so.6
+
Loaded symbols for /lib/ld-linux.so.3
(gdb) bt
+
Core was generated by `./cfft_arm'.
#0  0x400c35fc in raise () from /lib/libc.so.6
+
Program terminated with signal 8, Arithmetic exception.
#1  0x00009abc in __div0 ()
+
#0  0x400c35fc in raise () from /lib/libc.so.6
    at /home/yoder/BeagleBoard/oe/build/tmp-angstrom_2008_1/work/armv7a-angstrom-linux-gnueabi/gcc-cross-4.3.3-r16.1/gcc-4.3.3/libgcc/../gcc/config/arm/lib1funcs.asm:1079
+
(gdb) '''bt'''
#2  0x00008c80 in __udivsi3 ()
+
#0  0x400c35fc in raise () from /lib/libc.so.6
    at /home/yoder/BeagleBoard/oe/build/tmp-angstrom_2008_1/work/armv7a-angstrom-linux-gnueabi/gcc-cross-4.3.3-r16.1/gcc-4.3.3/libgcc/../gcc/config/arm/lib1funcs.asm:834
+
#1  0x00009abc in __div0 ()
#3  0x00008888 in fft_exec (N=16, in=0x12090) at cfft.c:87
+
    at /home/yoder/BeagleBoard/oe/build/tmp-angstrom_2008_1/work/armv7a-angstrom-linux-gnueabi/gcc-cross-4.3.3-r16.1/gcc-4.3.3/libgcc/../gcc/config/arm/lib1funcs.asm:1079
#4  0x0000868c in main () at main_cfft.c:62
+
#2  0x00008c80 in __udivsi3 ()
</pre>
+
    at /home/yoder/BeagleBoard/oe/build/tmp-angstrom_2008_1/work/armv7a-angstrom-linux-gnueabi/gcc-cross-4.3.3-r16.1/gcc-4.3.3/libgcc/../gcc/config/arm/lib1funcs.asm:834
 +
#3  0x00008888 in fft_exec (N=16, in=0x12090) at cfft.c:87
 +
#4  0x0000868c in main () at main_cfft.c:62
 +
 
 
gdb tells you right where the error occurred.  You can even ask it to list the file.
 
gdb tells you right where the error occurred.  You can even ask it to list the file.
<pre>
+
 
(gdb) list fft_exec
+
(gdb) '''list fft_exec'''
67   free (bndx);
+
67   free (bndx);
68   free (tableW);
+
68   free (tableW);
69 }
+
69 }
70
+
70
71 void fft_exec (int N, complex * in)
+
71 void fft_exec (int N, complex * in)
72 {
+
72 {
73   unsigned int n = N;
+
73   unsigned int n = N;
74   unsigned int a, b, i, j, k, r, s;
+
74   unsigned int a, b, i, j, k, r, s;
75   complex w, p;
+
75   complex w, p;
76
+
76
(gdb) l 87  
+
(gdb) '''l 87'''
82       w = tableW[k];
+
82       w = tableW[k];
83
+
83
84       r = 2 * n * k;
+
84       r = 2 * n * k;
85       s = n * (1 + 2 * k);
+
85       s = n * (1 + 2 * k);
86
+
86
87       for (j = 0; j < n; j++)
+
87       for (j = 0; j < n; j++)
88       {
+
88       {
89         a = j + r/0; // An error
+
89         a = j + r/0; // An error
90         b = j + s;
+
90         b = j + s;
91         cmult (p, w, in[b]);      //6 flop
+
91         cmult (p, w, in[b]);      //6 flop
</pre>
+
  
 
=== Remote gdb ===
 
=== Remote gdb ===
Line 293: Line 201:
 
Now remotely connect to your Beagle:
 
Now remotely connect to your Beagle:
  
  (gdb) '''target remote beagle2:2001'''
+
  (gdb) '''target remote beagle:2001'''
  Remote debugging using beagle2:2001
+
  Remote debugging using beagle:2001
 
  warning: Unable to find dynamic linker breakpoint function.
 
  warning: Unable to find dynamic linker breakpoint function.
 
  GDB will be unable to debug shared library initializers
 
  GDB will be unable to debug shared library initializers
Line 352: Line 260:
  
 
Mine went from about 26k to 8k when the symbols are removed, but it debugs just like before.
 
Mine went from about 26k to 8k when the symbols are removed, but it debugs just like before.
 +
 +
=== Remote via Eclipse ===
 +
 +
I haven't tried this yet, but [http://www.lvr.com/eclipse5.htm this] looks like a good way to setup Eclipse on your host to do remote debugging on the Beagle.
  
 
== cbrowser/cscope ==
 
== cbrowser/cscope ==
  
 
When you changed the value of '''MAXPOW2''' how did you find where it was defined?
 
When you changed the value of '''MAXPOW2''' how did you find where it was defined?
<pre>
+
 
$ grep MAXPOW *.c *.h
+
host$ '''grep MAXPOW *.c *.h'''
</pre>
+
 
 
works, but what if your files are spread over several directories? (Like the kernel).  '''cbrowser''' and '''cscope''' can help. On the host computer try:
 
works, but what if your files are spread over several directories? (Like the kernel).  '''cbrowser''' and '''cscope''' can help. On the host computer try:
<pre>
+
 
$ sudo apt-get install cbrowser
+
host$ '''sudo apt-get install cbrowser'''
$ sudo apt-get install cscope
+
host$ '''sudo apt-get install cscope'''
$ cscope -b
+
host$ '''cscope -b'''
$ cbrowser
+
host$ '''cbrowser'''
</pre>
+
 
 
You should see something like:
 
You should see something like:
 +
 
[[File:Cbrowser.png|200px‎]]
 
[[File:Cbrowser.png|200px‎]]
 +
 
Try searching for other symbols.
 
Try searching for other symbols.
  
Line 373: Line 287:
  
 
'''strace''' is a nice debugging tool that shows all the system calls a program is making. The book gives some nice examples of using strace. One place I used it was to learn where httpd looked for configuration files.
 
'''strace''' is a nice debugging tool that shows all the system calls a program is making. The book gives some nice examples of using strace. One place I used it was to learn where httpd looked for configuration files.
<pre>
+
 
$ strace httpd
+
beagle$ '''strace httpd'''
...
+
...
open("/etc/httpd.conf", O_RDONLY|O_LARGEFILE) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
+
open("/etc/httpd.conf", O_RDONLY|O_LARGEFILE) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("httpd.conf", O_RDONLY|O_LARGEFILE) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
+
open("httpd.conf", O_RDONLY|O_LARGEFILE) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
rt_sigaction(SIGHUP, {0x1a39c, [], SA_RESTART|0x4000000}, NULL, 8) = 0
+
rt_sigaction(SIGHUP, {0x1a39c, [], SA_RESTART|0x4000000}, NULL, 8) = 0
open("/dev/null", O_RDWR|O_LARGEFILE)  = 4
+
open("/dev/null", O_RDWR|O_LARGEFILE)  = 4
clone(child_stack=0, flags=CLONE_CHILD_CLEARTID|CLONE_CHILD_SETTID|SIGCHLD, child_tidptr=0x4001df98) = 3595
+
clone(child_stack=0, flags=CLONE_CHILD_CLEARTID|CLONE_CHILD_SETTID|SIGCHLD, child_tidptr=0x4001df98) = 3595
io_submit(0, 0, 0xfbad2088 <unfinished ... exit status 0>
+
io_submit(0, 0, 0xfbad2088 <unfinished ... exit status 0>
Process 3594 detached
+
Process 3594 detached
</pre>
+
 
 +
{{YoderFoot}}

Revision as of 19:35, 17 July 2012

thumb‎ Embedded Linux Class by Mark A. Yoder


This is a continuation of the earlier gdb lab. In the past lab we did local execution on the BeagleBoard. Here we'll do remote execution with gdb running on your host and debugging code on your Beagle.

Installing gdb

You should already have this, but if not. On your host computer run:

host$ apt-get install gdb

On your Beagle run:

beagle$ opkg install gdb gdbserver

The Sample Program

You can get the sample program via git on both your host and Beagle.

host$ git clone git@github.com:MarkAYoder/BeagleBoard-exercises.git exercises
beagle$ git clone git@github.com:MarkAYoder/BeagleBoard-exercises.git exercises

host$ cd exerciese/gdbExample
host$ gedit Makefile

Edit the Makefile and correct ARM_TOOLCHAIN_PATH for your machine. Also search for install: and fix it for your beagle.

host$ make all install

This will compile the code and scp it to your Beagle. You've just compiled a program that performs a complex fft on random data. It's main purpose is to see how fast it runs on the Beagle. (In case you are interested, I added to rule so you can compile it for your host computer. Try make x86 and compare the times on your host to those on the Beagle.)

The program takes several seconds to run on the Beagle, so you may want to edit the code so it doesn't run so many iterations.

Running gdb on the Beagle

On your Beagle try:

beagle$ gdb cfft_arm
GNU gdb (GDB) 7.2
Copyright (C) 2010 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.
There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.  Type "show copying"
and "show warranty" for details.
This GDB was configured as "arm-angstrom-linux-gnueabi".
For bug reporting instructions, please see:
<http://www.gnu.org/software/gdb/bugs/>...
Reading symbols from /home/root/exercises/gdbExample/cfft_arm...done.

(gdb) b main
Breakpoint 1 at 0x8554
(gdb) r
Starting program: /home/root/gdbExample/cfft_arm  

Breakpoint 1, 0x00008554 in main ()

When first starting gdb notice the line This GDB was configured as "arm-angstrom-linux-gnueabi. This is a good sign. The first command b main sets a breakpoint at main. The next command runs to that break point. Now lets look at our code a this point. Try the list command.

(gdb) l
42	}
43	
44	static complex *new_complex_vector(int size);
45	
46	int main ()
47	{
48	  int i;
49	  int N, n;
50	  int nTimes;
51	  float secs;
(gdb) n
56	    complex *in = new_complex_vector(N);
(gdb) n
57	    complex *out = new_complex_vector(N);
(gdb) n
59	    fft_init (N);
(gdb) p N
$1 = 16

Now l shows the code around the breakpoint. If you aren't seeing code, be sure to scp your .c and .h files to the Beagle.

The n steps to the next line in the program, the p command prints the variable that is listed. Use the s command to step into a function.

(gdb) s
fft_init (N=16) at cfft.c:33

33 tableW = malloc ((N / 2) * sizeof (complex));

(gdb) l
28	
29	void fft_init (int N)
30	{
31	  int i, j;
32	
33	  tableW = malloc ((N / 2) * sizeof (complex));
34	  bndx = malloc (N * sizeof (int));
35	  ndx = malloc ((N / 2) * sizeof (int));
36	
37	  ndx[0] = 0;

That's enough to get you around a bit. help will get you information about more commands. c will continue from where you stopped.

gdb and core files

Sometimes you have a program that stops running expectedly. gdb can help find where it quit and why. Let's find the bug in the cfft program. On the Beagle:

beagle $ ./cfft_arm 
Floating point exception

Let the Beagle write a core file and see how gdb can use it

beagle$ ulimit -c unlimited
beagle$ ./cfft_arm 

Floating point exception (core dumped)

beagle$ gdb ./cfft_arm core
GNU gdb (GDB) 7.2
Copyright (C) 2010 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.
There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.  Type "show copying"
and "show warranty" for details.
This GDB was configured as "arm-angstrom-linux-gnueabi".
For bug reporting instructions, please see:
<http://www.gnu.org/software/gdb/bugs/>...
Reading symbols from /home/root/exercises/gdbExample/cfft_arm...done.
[New Thread 30777]
Reading symbols from /lib/libm.so.6...Reading symbols from /lib/.debug/libm-2.9.so...done.
done.
Loaded symbols for /lib/libm.so.6
Reading symbols from /lib/libc.so.6...Reading symbols from /lib/.debug/libc-2.9.so...done.
done.
Loaded symbols for /lib/libc.so.6
Reading symbols from /lib/ld-linux.so.3...Reading symbols from /lib/.debug/ld-2.9.so...done.
done.
Loaded symbols for /lib/ld-linux.so.3
Core was generated by `./cfft_arm'.
Program terminated with signal 8, Arithmetic exception.
#0  0x400c35fc in raise () from /lib/libc.so.6

(gdb) bt

#0  0x400c35fc in raise () from /lib/libc.so.6
#1  0x00009abc in __div0 ()
    at /home/yoder/BeagleBoard/oe/build/tmp-angstrom_2008_1/work/armv7a-angstrom-linux-gnueabi/gcc-cross-4.3.3-r16.1/gcc-4.3.3/libgcc/../gcc/config/arm/lib1funcs.asm:1079
#2  0x00008c80 in __udivsi3 ()
    at /home/yoder/BeagleBoard/oe/build/tmp-angstrom_2008_1/work/armv7a-angstrom-linux-gnueabi/gcc-cross-4.3.3-r16.1/gcc-4.3.3/libgcc/../gcc/config/arm/lib1funcs.asm:834
#3  0x00008888 in fft_exec (N=16, in=0x12090) at cfft.c:87
#4  0x0000868c in main () at main_cfft.c:62

gdb tells you right where the error occurred. You can even ask it to list the file.

(gdb) list fft_exec
67	  free (bndx);
68	  free (tableW);
69	}
70	
71	void fft_exec (int N, complex * in)
72	{
73	  unsigned int n = N;
74	  unsigned int a, b, i, j, k, r, s;
75	  complex w, p;
76	
(gdb) l 87 
82	      w = tableW[k];
83	
84	      r = 2 * n * k;
85	      s = n * (1 + 2 * k);
86	
87	      for (j = 0; j < n; j++)
88	      {
89	        a = j + r/0;		// An error
90	        b = j + s;
91	        cmult (p, w, in[b]);      //6 flop

Remote gdb

Sometimes you can't run gdb on an embedded target since it doesn't have enough resources for all of gdb. You can run gdb on your host and debug on the Beagle. You must install a version of gdb on your host that is compiled for the target.

host$ source ~/.oe/environment-oecore
host$ bitbake gdb-cross

The bitbake took about 2.5 minutes.

On your Beagle run:

beagle$ gdbserver localhost:2001 ./cfft_arm

On your host run:

host$ source ~/.oe/crossCompileEnv.sh 
host$ ${CROSS_COMPILE}gdb ./cfft_arm 
GNU gdb (GDB) 7.1
Copyright (C) 2010 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.
There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.  Type "show copying"
and "show warranty" for details.
This GDB was configured as "--host=i686-linux --target=arm-angstrom-linux-gnueabi".
For bug reporting instructions, please see:
<http://www.gnu.org/software/gdb/bugs/>...
Reading symbols from /home/yoder/BeagleBoard/gdbExample/cfft_arm...done.

Notice the line that says This GDB was configured as "--host=i686-linux --target=arm-angstrom-linux-gnueabi", this tells us we have the right version of gdb.

Now remotely connect to your Beagle:

(gdb) target remote beagle:2001
Remote debugging using beagle:2001
warning: Unable to find dynamic linker breakpoint function.
GDB will be unable to debug shared library initializers
and track explicitly loaded dynamic code.
0x400007f0 in ?? ()
(gdb) b main
Cannot access memory at address 0x0
Breakpoint 1 at 0x8590: file main_cfft.c, line 47.
(gdb) c
Continuing.
warning: `/lib/libm.so.6': Shared library architecture unknown is not compatible with target architecture arm.
warning: .dynamic section for "/lib/libm.so.6" is not at the expected address (wrong library or version mismatch?)
warning: `/lib/libc.so.6': Shared library architecture unknown is not compatible with target architecture arm.
warning: .dynamic section for "/lib/libc.so.6" is not at the expected address (wrong library or version mismatch?)
Error while mapping shared library sections:
/lib/ld-linux.so.3: No such file or directory.

Breakpoint 1, main () at main_cfft.c:47
47	{
(gdb) l
42	}
43	
44	static complex *new_complex_vector(int size);
45	
46	int main ()
47	{
48	  int i;
49	  int N, n;
50	  int nTimes;
51	  float secs;
(gdb) n
56	    complex *in = new_complex_vector(N);
(gdb) b fft_exec
Breakpoint 2 at 0x87d4: file cfft.c, line 77.
(gdb) c
Continuing. 

Breakpoint 2, fft_exec (N=16, in=0x12090) at cfft.c:77
77	  for (i = 1; i < N; i = i * 2)
(gdb) p n
$1 = 1
(gdb) n
72	{
(gdb) n 3
80	    for (k = 0; k < i; k++)
(gdb) p n
$2 = 16

And so on. The nice thing is the remote binary, cfft_arm, doesn't have to have the debugging information in it. On your Beagle try:

beagle$ ls -l cfft_arm
beagle$ file cfft_arm
beagle$ strip cfft_arm
beagle$ ls -l cfft_arm
beagle$ file cfft_arm
beagle$ gdbserver locatl:2001 ./cfft_arm 

Mine went from about 26k to 8k when the symbols are removed, but it debugs just like before.

Remote via Eclipse

I haven't tried this yet, but this looks like a good way to setup Eclipse on your host to do remote debugging on the Beagle.

cbrowser/cscope

When you changed the value of MAXPOW2 how did you find where it was defined?

host$ grep MAXPOW *.c *.h

works, but what if your files are spread over several directories? (Like the kernel). cbrowser and cscope can help. On the host computer try:

host$ sudo apt-get install cbrowser
host$ sudo apt-get install cscope
host$ cscope -b
host$ cbrowser

You should see something like:

200px‎

Try searching for other symbols.

strace

strace is a nice debugging tool that shows all the system calls a program is making. The book gives some nice examples of using strace. One place I used it was to learn where httpd looked for configuration files.

beagle$ strace httpd
...
open("/etc/httpd.conf", O_RDONLY|O_LARGEFILE) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("httpd.conf", O_RDONLY|O_LARGEFILE) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
rt_sigaction(SIGHUP, {0x1a39c, [], SA_RESTART|0x4000000}, NULL, 8) = 0
open("/dev/null", O_RDWR|O_LARGEFILE)   = 4
clone(child_stack=0, flags=CLONE_CHILD_CLEARTID|CLONE_CHILD_SETTID|SIGCHLD, child_tidptr=0x4001df98) = 3595
io_submit(0, 0, 0xfbad2088 <unfinished ... exit status 0>
Process 3594 detached




thumb‎ Embedded Linux Class by Mark A. Yoder