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Difference between revisions of "FR:RPi FAQ"

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(Peut-il faire fonctionner WINE (ou Windows, ou d'autres logiciels x86) ?)
(Peut-il faire tourner Android ?)
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=== Peut-il faire tourner Android ? ===
 
=== Peut-il faire tourner Android ? ===
  
If someone in the community can port a version of Android to work with 256MB of RAM, then it’ll run on the Raspberry Pi.
+
Si quelqu'un de la communauté arrive à porter une version d'Android qui fonctionne avec 256Mo de RAM, alors ça fonctionnera sur le Raspberry Pi.
  
 
=== Peut-il faire tourner <insérez le nom d'un programme ici> ? ===
 
=== Peut-il faire tourner <insérez le nom d'un programme ici> ? ===

Revision as of 15:42, 18 May 2013

R-Pi Model AB Mono-1.png
Le module beta du Rpi (modèle B)
Un rendu 3D du logo Raspberry Pi par Antario, utilisateur du forum. Source

Contents

Introduction

Qu'est-ce-qu'un Raspberry Pi ?

The Raspberry Pi is a credit-card sized computer that plugs into your TV and a keyboard. It’s a capable little PC which can be used for many of the things that your desktop PC does, like spreadsheets, word-processing and games. It also plays high-definition video. We want to see it being used by kids all over the world to learn programming.

Puis-je acheter des actions dans la fondation Raspberry Pi ?

We’re a charity, so you can’t buy shares in the company. If you want to support us, we’d love you to buy one. We’ll also be offering a package where you can do a buy-one-give-one purchase, and we’ll be accepting donations too once we start shipping.

ACHAT ET LIVRAISONS

Où puis-je en acheter un ?

The Raspi is available to purchase through Premier Farnell/Element 14 and RS Components . Chinese customers might enquire at Egoman Technology

Combien puis-je en acheter en une seule commande ?

For the first batch we limited orders to one per person. This was to prevent eBay scalping (to some extent – we also auctioned some boards ourselves to try to make sure there’s no market for scalpers), and ensure that as many different individuals as possible got their Raspberry Pi!

Combien coûte-il ?

The Model A costs $25 and the Model B $35, plus local taxes and shipping.

Comment puis-je le payer ?

The distributors accept most major cards, PayPal, and offline payments.

Que recevrai-je après en avoir acheté un ?

A Raspberry Pi. Leads, a power supply, case or SD cards are not included but can be purchased from any of the Raspberry Pi vendors: Premier Farnell/Element 14 and RS Components. You can build an operating system on your own SD card or buy one preloaded with Raspian "wheezy" from the same source.

Pourquoi le prix est-il en dollars US ? Vous êtes une société UK !

The components we buy are priced in dollars, and we negotiate manufacturing in dollars. Because currency markets are so volatile at the moment, we price the final board in dollars too, so we don’t have to keep changing the price.

Y a-t-il une opération un-offert-pour-un-acheté ?

Yes. We plan to implement a program of this sort, but you can also just buy one if you prefer.

Le périphérique est-il disponible partout dans le monde ?

Premier Farnell/Element 14 and RS Components distribute and ship world-wide via subsidiaries and partners in virtually every country. There have been some problems with information about pricing and availability being fully shared among some countries' local offices, but, they are being worked out with the primary distributors and should be resolved by mid-March 2012.

Combien coûte la livraison vers le [pays X] ?

Premier Farnell/Element 14 and RS Components and their subsidiaries/partners will convey this information before orders are charged, and these costs may vary from country to country, which the Foundation cannot control.

Y a-t-il une quantité minimale à commander ?

The minimum order quantity is one unit. The maximum order size restriction has been lifted.

Acceptez-vous les pré-commandes ?

Les pré-commandes sont désormais traitées par Premier Farnell/Element 14 et RS Components

Je souhaite devenir revendeur de Raspberry Pi.

We are not taking requests for people to be resellers at the moment. However , nothing stops your buying devices from the distributors and reselling them with accessories.

Puis-je rejoindre la liste de diffusion ?

You certainly can. Head to the home page, and you’ll see a form at the top right you can fill in. People who are signed up will get an e-mail as soon as we have confirmed a release date.

GÉNÉRAL

Quelles sont les différences entre les modèles A et B ?

Model A has 256 MB of RAM, HDMI, one USB port and no Ethernet (network connection). Two revisions of the Model B exist. The first (now referred to as revision 1) has 256 MB RAM, HDMI, two USB ports and a 100 Mbits/sec Ethernet port. Model B revision 2 has 512MB RAM with the same ports.

Quelles sont les dimensions du Raspberry Pi ?

The Raspberry Pi measures 85.60mm x 53.98mm x 17mm, with a little overlap for the SD card and connectors which project over the edges. It weighs 45g.

Quel SoC utilisez-vous ?

The SoC is a Broadcom BCM2835. This contains an ARM1176JZFS, with floating point, running at 700Mhz, and a Videocore IV GPU. The GPU is capable of BluRay quality playback, using H.264 at 40 Mbits/s. It has a fast 3D core accessed using the supplied OpenGL ES 2.0 and OpenVG libraries.

Pourquoi avoir choisi le ARM11 ?

Coût et performances.

Quelle est sa puissance ?

The GPU provides Open GL ES 2.0, hardware-accelerated OpenVG, and 1080p30 H.264 high-profile decode.

The GPU is capable of 1 Gpixel/s, 1.5 Gtexel/s or 24 GFLOPs of general purpose compute and features a bunch of texture filtering and DMA infrastructure.

That is, graphics capabilities are roughly equivalent to Xbox 1 level of performance. Overall real-world performance is something like a 300MHz Pentium II, only with much, much swankier graphics.

Peut-on l'overclocker ?

There’s a little overclocking headroom – most devices will run happily at 800MHz. There’s no BIOS per se, but we do support booting bare metal code, so something could be done.

Ça va mixer ?

Yes. We have conducted extensive virtual simulations. No Raspberry Pis were harmed in the testing.

Comment démarre-t-il ?

You have to boot from SD but a USB HD can “take over” after the initial boot. You cannot boot without an SD card.

Où se trouve l'interrupteur marche/arrêt ?

To switch on: just plug it in!

To switch off: remove power.

Or if you really want a switch, you can get a Pi Supply Switch

Pourquoi n'y a-t-il pas de véritable horloge temps-réel (RTC) ?

The expectation is that non-network connected units will have their clocks updated manually at startup. Adding an RTC is surprisingly expensive, once you’ve factored in batteries, area and componentry and would have pushed us above our target price. You can add one yourself using the GPIO pins if you’re after an interesting electronics project.

Commercialiserez-vous à kit à monter soi-même ?

No. It would be too expensive for us to provide kits alongside finished boards, which would mean introducing another step in manufacturing; and a kit would be impossible to hand solder. We use special equipment (robots!) to solder on the BGA package and other tiny components.

Puis-je ajouter de la mémoire ?

No. The RAM is a POP package on top of the SoC, so it’s not removable or swappable.

De la documentation sur le matériel sera-t-elle disponible ?

Broadcom don’t release a full datasheet for the BCM2835, which is the chip at the heart of the Raspberry Pi. We have released a datasheet for the SoC which covers the hardware exposed on the Raspi board e.g. the GPIOs. We also have released a board schematic .

Mais je veux la documentation du <matériel X> !

Other documentation may be released in future but this will be at the Foundation’s discretion.

Mais j'exige la documentation du circuit. Donnez-la moi !

To get the full SoC documentation you would need to sign an NDA with Broadcom, who make the chip and sell it to us. But you would also need to provide a business model and estimate of how many chips you are going to sell.

Pourquoi le Raspberry Pi ne dispose-t-il pas du composant matériel <insérez un nom> ou du type de connecteur <insérez un nom> ?

Our main function is a charitable one – we’re trying to build the cheapest possible computer that provides a certain basic level of functionality, and keeping the price low means we’ve had to make hard decisions about what hardware and interfaces to include.

Pouvez-vous vérifier qu'il peut convenir pour <X> ?

If you want to use it for something that we haven’t tested, and that it’s not intended for (i.e. anything but the educational work we’re planning for it), then that development work is up to you.

Comment puis-je brancher un clavier et une souris ?

Model A has one USB port and Model B has two. Beyond this, mice, keyboards, network adapters and external storage will all connect via a USB hub.

BOÎTIERS

Aura-t-il un boîtier ?

Not for the first batch. We’ll be making and selling cases by the summer; you'll be able to buy a unit with or without a case, or a case on its own. The education release later in 2012 will have a case by default. There are lots of homebrew case discussions on the forum.

Peut-il loger dans une boîte métallique Altoids ?

Doesn’t quite work, I’m afraid – because we don’t round off the edges of the board, it’s a little too big to fit the tin.

GRAPHISME

Quel affichage puis-je utiliser ?

There is composite and HDMI out on the board, so you can hook it up to an old analog TV, to a digital TV or to a DVI monitor (using a cheap adapter for the DVI). There is no VGA support, but adaptors are available, although these are relatively expensive.

Pourquoi n'y a-t-il pas de support du VGA ?

The chip specifically supports HDMI. VGA is considered to be an end-of-life technology, so supporting it doesn’t fit with our plans at the moment.

Y a-t-il un binaire GPU ?

Yes. The GPU binary also contains the first stage bootloader.

Puis-je ajouter un écran tactile ?

We haven’t experimented with any touchscreens yet, but there’s no electronic reason why it shouldn’t work. There’s lots of discussion about this on the forums. The main issue people are encountering seems to be one of cost; touchscreens are very pricey!

Quelle est la plage de température d'utilisation ?

The Raspberry Pi is built from commercial chips which are qualified to different temperature ranges; the LAN9512 is specified by the manufacturers being qualified from 0°C to 70°C, while the AP is qualified from -40°C to 85°C. You may well find that the board will work outside those temperatures, but we’re not qualifying the board itself to these extremes.

AUDIO

Le son via HDMI est-il pris en charge ?

Oui.

Quelle est la norme des entrées et sorties audio ?

There’s a standard 3.5mm jack for audio out. You can add any supported USB microphone for audio in.

ALIMENTATION

Quelles sont les caractéristiques de l'alimentation ?

The device is powered by 5v micro USB. You can read more about it here. Power supplies will be available at launch.

Puis-je alimenter le Raspberry Pi à partir de piles aussi bien qu'à partir de la prise murale ?

Yes. The Model A should run well off 4 x AA cells.

L'alimentation par Ethernet (PoE) est-elle possible ?

Not in the base device, but it’s been a very commonly requested feature, so we’re examining options for later releases.

LOGICIEL

Quel système d'exploitation (SE) utilise-t-il ?

It is capable of running several different operating systems. As of July 2012, the Foundation recommmends Raspbian "Wheezy" for first-time users. It’s straightforward to replace the root partition on the SD card with another ARM Linux distro if you want to use something else. The OS is stored on the SD card.

Dispose-t-il d'un langage de programmation officiel ?

By default, we’ll be supporting Python as the educational language.

Any language which will compile for ARMv6 can be used with the Raspberry Pi, though; so you’re not limited to using Python.

Peut-il faire fonctionner WINE (ou Windows, ou d'autres logiciels x86) ?

Non.

Quelles distributions Linux sont supportées au lancement ?

Fedora, Debian and ArchLinux will be supported from the start. We hope to see support from other distros later (because of issues with newer releases of Ubuntu and the ARM processor we are using, Ubuntu can’t commit to supporting Raspberry Pi at the moment). You will be able to download distro images from us as soon as the Raspberry Pi is released, and we will also be selling pre-loaded SD cards shortly after release.

Peut-il faire tourner Android ?

Si quelqu'un de la communauté arrive à porter une version d'Android qui fonctionne avec 256Mo de RAM, alors ça fonctionnera sur le Raspberry Pi.

Peut-il faire tourner <insérez le nom d'un programme ici> ?

In general, you need to look to see whether the program you want can be compiled for the ARMv6 architecture. In most cases the answer will be yes. Specific programs are discussed on our forum, so you might want to look there for an answer.

Peut-il faire tourner le nouveau Windows RT ?

We are not partners with Microsoft, and their support would be required for porting Windows 8.

Cartes SD et supports de stockage

We have tried cards up to 32GB and most cards seem to work OK. The Wiki has more information about which makes and models work best. You can also attach a USB flash memory stick or USB hard drive for storage.

Que se passe-t-il si je bricke le matériel ?

Vous pouvez le restaurer en réécrivant la carte SD.

RÉSEAU, USB ET SANS-FIL

Gère-t-il le réseau ? Y a-t-il du Wi-Fi ?

The Model B version of the device includes 10/100 Mbits/second wired Ethernet. There is no Ethernet on the Model A version (which we expect to be taken up mostly by the education market), but Wi-Fi will be available via a standard USB dongle.

Y aura-t-il une option WiFi ?

Not in the first version, though you can add a dongle. ARM Linux WiFi support can be a bit patchy; there’s a list of tested dongles on the wiki.

Pourquoi pas d'Ethernet Gigabit ?

The Ethernet is driven via USB 2.0, so the upstream bandwidth would not support Gigabit.

Dispose-t-il d'un support quelconque pour un démarrage réseau ou Pxe ?

No. However, it’s such a low-power device that we expect it to be left on much of the time!

Comment puis-je connecter plus de deux périphériques USB ?

Use a hub to increase the number of ports. Some keyboards have hubs built in which would work well.

USAGES ÉDUCATIFS

Des ressources pédagogiques seront-elles disponibles ?

We’re working with partners to get software materials developed, as well as with the open source community. Computing at School is writing a user guide and programming manual, we’re aware of a few books being planned and written around the Raspberry Pi, and others have already started to produce some excellent tutorials including video. We’re also working with partners to use it as a teaching platform for other subjects, including languages, math, and so on.

Once we launch, we hope that the community will help organizations like Computing at School put together teaching material such as lesson plans and resources and push this into schools. In due course, the foundation hopes to provide a system of prizes to give young people something to work towards.

There’s lots of discussion of educational uses and resources in our forums – come and have a chat!

GLOSSAIRE

BGA: Ball Grid Array. A type of surface mount packaging for electronics.

SoC: System on Chip. A computer on a single integrated circuit.

GPIO: General Purpose Input/Output. Pins that can be programmed to do stuff.

GPU: Graphics Processing Unit. The hardware that handles 3-D graphics in scientific notation (floating point) math.

Distro: a specific package (“flavor”) of Linux and associated software.

Brick: to accidentally render a device inoperative by making changes to software or firmware.

Pxe: Preboot execution environment. A way to get a device to boot via the network.

PoE: Power over Ethernet. Powering a device via an Ethernet cable.