Difference between revisions of "Flameman/ipaq"

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 +
For more interesting projects done by Flameman, be sure to check out his [[Flameman#master_index|project index]]
 +
 
= ipaq-36xx-Flameman =
 
= ipaq-36xx-Flameman =
 
 
  
 
== Introduction ==
 
== Introduction ==
Line 23: Line 23:
  
  
* flameman, i'm currently use this board for a project
+
* flameman, I'm currently use this board for a project
 
** msn daredevil-coder@hotmail.it
 
** msn daredevil-coder@hotmail.it
 
** email flamemaniii@gmail.com
 
** email flamemaniii@gmail.com
Line 339: Line 339:
 
== HW table ==
 
== HW table ==
  
http://www.elinux.org/Flameman/ipaq/hw
+
Flameman/ipaq/hw
 
+
  
 
== Jtag ==
 
== Jtag ==
Line 355: Line 354:
 
=== news for iPAQ ===
 
=== news for iPAQ ===
  
you can read about kernel status and user land @ http://www.elinux.org/Flameman/ipaq/status
+
you can read about kernel status and user land @ [[Flameman/ipaq/status]]
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
any suggestion, testing, such a collaboration is pretty welcome !
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
  
  
Line 362: Line 371:
  
  
any suggestion, testing is welcome !
+
.
  
 
=== poor dmesg (dual pcmcia sleeve) ===
 
=== poor dmesg (dual pcmcia sleeve) ===
Line 684: Line 693:
 
Feel free to take a look there, that's interesting, anyway if you are still interested about iPAQ: these are my experimental results about iPAQ 3630-3660 and the 2.6
 
Feel free to take a look there, that's interesting, anyway if you are still interested about iPAQ: these are my experimental results about iPAQ 3630-3660 and the 2.6
  
 
+
[[Flameman/ipaq/kernel]]
http://www.elinux.org/Flameman/ipaq/kernel
+
  
 
=== studying how to write kernel drivers ===
 
=== studying how to write kernel drivers ===
Line 708: Line 716:
 
All PC Card controllers can generate interrupts in response to card status changes. These interrupts are distinct from the IO interrupts generated by an IO card, and use a separate interrupt line. Signals that can generate interrupts include card detect, ready/busy, write protect, battery low, and battery dead
 
All PC Card controllers can generate interrupts in response to card status changes. These interrupts are distinct from the IO interrupts generated by an IO card, and use a separate interrupt line. Signals that can generate interrupts include card detect, ready/busy, write protect, battery low, and battery dead
  
=== Writing PCMCIA/CF Device Drivers article ===
 
Technologies like Wi-Fi, GPRS, and miniature storage devices are ubiquitous today as PCMCIA or CF cards. The Linux kernel supports PCMCIA devices on a variety of architectures.
 
Sreekrishnan Venkateswaran Sunday, May 15th, 2005
 
  
  
Much of today’s popular technologies, such as memory cards, modems, wireless and wired Ethernet, General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), and the Global Positioning System (GPS) are widely available in the form factor of PCMCIA (an acronym for Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) or Compact Flash (CF) cards. Most laptops and many embedded devices support PCMCIA or CF interfaces, thus instantly enabling them to make use of a wide variety of technologies.
+
=== pcmcia sleeve ===
PCMCIA is a 16-bit data transfer interface specification that uses the 68-pin connector originally used by memory cards. The specification has grown to include support for higher speeds in the form of 32-bit CardBus cards. (The term PC Card is used when referring to either PCMCIA or CardBus devices.) CF cards are smaller, but compatible with PCMCIA, and are frequently used in handheld devices like PDAs and digital cameras. CF cards come in two flavors: Type 1 cards and the thicker Type II cards. CF cards have only 50 pins, but can be slipped into your laptop’s PCMCIA slot using a passive CF-to-PCMCIA adapter.
+
In this column, let’s explore how the Linux PCMCIA layer works and examine the support present in the kernel for PCMCIA/CF host adapters and client devices. Next month’s column will use the concepts learned here while implementing simple drivers for some popular networking and storage technologies.
+
  
 +
There is an issue with pcmcia sleeve: the problem doesn't occur with single slot sleeves with part number 173396-001 but does occur in dual slot sleeves with part number
 +
216198-B21.  And we have only today found that the problem also occurs
 +
with new (?) model single slot sleeves with part number 249704-B22.
  
[[Image:kernel_pcmcia-cf-layer.jpg]]
 
The Kernel PCMCIA/CF Layer
 
  
Kernel PCMCIA/CF support is available on Intel-based laptops as well as on architectures like ARM, MIPS, and PowerPC. The PCMCIA subsystem consists of device drivers for PCMCIA host controllers, client drivers for different cards, a daemon that aids hot plugging, user mode utilities, and a Card Services module that interacts with all the above.
+
sources fix up is required
Figure One illustrates the interaction between the modules that constitute the PCMCIA subsystem.
+
FIGURE ONE: Interaction between the modules that constitute the PCMCIA subsystem
+
  
  
 +
how to write a pcmcia kernel driver http://www.linux-mag.com/id/1981
  
As shown in Figure One, the Linux PCMCIA layer consists of:
+
* sa11xx_drv_pcmcia_probe -> soc_common_drv_pcmcia_probe
*A Card Services kernel module that provides services to host controller drivers and PCMCIA card drivers (also called clients). Card Services provides an infrastructure that makes driver implementations simpler and adds a level of indirection that renders client drivers independent of host controllers.
+
*Host controller device drivers that implement low level routines for talking with the PCMCIA host controller. Each device slot that the host controller supports is called a socket.
+
*XX_cs, the client device driver that responds to socket events like card insertion and ejection. This also configures the generic device driver (XX.o) with resources like IRQs, I/O base addresses, and memory windows.
+
*XX.o, the generic device driver, which is not PCMCIA-specific. If your device is a PCMCIA disk, XX.o is the IDE device driver, XX-dependent layers are the filesystem layers, while XX-applications are programs that access files on the PCMCIA disk.
+
*The Card Manager daemon (cardmgr) provides support for hot plugging. PCMCIA/CF cards have two memory spaces: attribute memory and common memory. Attribute memory holds configuration registers and descriptor information like the Card Information Structure (CIS). While Card Services passes information from the card’s CIS up to cardmgr, cardmgr passes resource allocation policies (defined in /etc/pcmcia/config.opts) down to Card Services.
+
*A Driver Services module (ds.o) that’s responsible for communication between the kernel PCMCIA layer and the cardmgr daemon.
+
*Utilities such as cardctl that can be used to control the state of PCMCIA sockets and select between different configuration schemes.
+
  
The PCMCIA Host Controller
 
The PCMCIA host controller bridges the card with the system bus. It maps card memory to host I/O and memory windows, and routes interrupts generated by the card to a free processor interrupt line.
 
While laptops generally have a PCMCIA controller chip connected to the PCI bus, PCMCIA support is built-in to the microcontroller in many embedded devices. Figure Two relates the kernel PCMCIA modules with the typical architecture of a PCMCIA-enabled laptop.
 
FIGURE TWO: The kernel PCMCIA modules and the typical architecture of a PCMCIA-enabled laptop
 
  
  
  
Card Services
 
Card Services is the main component of the kernel PCMCIA core. It offers a set of services to client drivers and host controller drivers. Some of these services include routines to manipulate the card’s CIS space (GetFirstTuple(), GetNextTuple(), ParseTuple()), routines to reserve and release IRQ and I/O window information (RequestIRQ(), ReleaseIRQ(), RequestIO(), ReleaseIO()) and routines to actually configure PCMCIA sockets (RequestConfiguration()).
 
Card Services notifies the client driver’s event handler when the host controller reports events like card insertion, removal, and low battery. Code snippets in Listings Four and Five use some of the functionalities offered by Card Services.
 
  
The Client Device Driver (XX_cs)
 
The client device driver looks at the card’s CIS space and configures the card depending on the information that it reads. It also contains a handler that’s invoked by Card Services when the host controller driver detects a card status event.
 
In Listing One, the client driver registers attach and detach entry points with Card Services. The XX_attach() routine gets invoked when a request is received from the user mode cardmgr daemon to bind the client driver to a socket. (The data flow between the various PCMCIA components will get clearer when you trace the code path later on.)
 
Listing One: Attaching a client driver (2.4.x kernels)
 
  
/* Invoked during module initialization */
+
* drivers/pcmcia/cs.c: socket_insert
 +
* drivers/pcmcia/pcmcia_ioctl.c:  p_dev = pcmcia_device_add(s, bind_info->function);
 +
* drivers/pcmcia/ds.c:  "pcmcia: registering new device %s\n" -> struct pcmcia_device * pcmcia_device_add(struct pcmcia_socket *s, unsigned int function)
  
static int __init init_XX_cs (void)
+
=== dmesg ===
{
+
on 04-12-2009
  
/* “XX_cs” is the name of the client. This needs to match the string
+
<pre>
specified in the PCMCIA configuration file (/etc/pcmcia/config).
+
nothing
Note that the actual location of configuration files depends on
+
</pre>
the Linux distribution that you use */
+
  
register_pccard_driver (”XX_cs”, &XX_attach, &XX_detach);
 
}
 
The registration syntax changed between the 2.4 and 2.6 kernels. Listing Two shows the corresponding routine used in 2.6.
 
Listing Two: Attaching a client (2.6 Kernels)
 
  
static struct pcmcia_driver XX_cs_driver = {
+
=== gentoo, booting from the CF ===
.owner = THIS_MODULE,
+
.drv = {
+
.name = “XX_cs”,
+
},
+
.attach = XX_attach,
+
.detach = XX_detach,
+
};
+
  
static int __init init_XX_cs(void)
+
initialize it
{
+
return pcmcia_register_driver (&XX_cs_driver);
+
}
+
XX_attach() allocates a data structure for the corresponding device instance, populates it with information such as the address of the event handler routine, and registers the device with Card Services. This is shown in Listing Three.
+
Listing Three: Registering the event handler with Card Services
+
  
static dev_link_t *XX_attach (void)
+
<pre>
{
+
  1. boot> sleeve insert
dev_link_t *link;
+
  2. boot> pcmcia insert
 +
</pre>
  
/* Populate the ’link’ structure here with attributes
+
http://handhelds.org/moin/moin.cgi/BootingLinuxFromCF
* related to IRQ, I/O windows and other link configuration
+
* details like the voltage level used by the card. See
+
* include/pcmcia/ds.h for the structure definition.
+
*/
+
  
client_reg.dev_info = “XX_cs”; /* Name */
+
http://blog.lsweb.eu/index.php?itemid=2
client_reg.Attributes = INFO_IO_CLIENT | INFO_CARD_SHARE;
+
  
/* Request notification when the following events occur */
+
== boot loader ==
client_reg.EventMask =
+
CS_EVENT_CARD_INSERTION | CS_EVENT_CARD_REMOVAL |
+
CS_EVENT_RESET_PHYSICAL | CS_EVENT_CARD_RESET |
+
CS_EVENT_PM_SUSPEND | CS_EVENT_PM_RESUME; /* Power Mgmt Events */
+
  
client_reg.event_handler = &XX_event; /* See Listing Four */
+
=== bootblaster ===
client_reg.Version = 0×0210; /* Version */
+
  
/* Assign the link data structure that was populated */
 
client_reg.event_callback_args.client_data = link;
 
  
/* Register with Card Services */
+
==== kexecboot ====
ret = CardServices (RegisterClient, &link->handle, &client_reg);
+
}
+
Again, the function for registering a client has changed in the 2.6 kernels. The corresponding 2.6 function is:
+
  
pcmcia_register_client (&link->handle, &client_reg);
 
  
The event handler responds to changes in the card status. It contains code to handle events like hotplug and power management requests. Listing Four contains the event handler.
+
http://jay-home.ath.cx/zImage-kexecboot-2.6.21-hh20-r12-h5000.bin
Listing Four: The Event Handler
+
  
static int XX_event (event_t event, int priority,
+
http://jay-home.ath.cx/zImage-2.6.21-hh20-r25-h5000.bin
event_callback_args_t *args)
+
{
+
/* … */
+
  
switch (event) {
+
http://jay-home.ath.cx/modules-2.6.21-hh20-r25-h5000.tgz
case CS_EVENT_CARD_INSERTION: /* card was inserted */
+
link->state |= DEV_PRESENT | DEV_CONFIG_PENDING;
+
XX_config (link); /* See Listing Five */
+
break;
+
  
case CS_EVENT_PM_SUSPEND: /* power management event */
+
thanks to Jay7
link->state |= DEV_SUSPEND;
+
CardServices (ReleaseConfiguration, link->handle);
+
break;
+
  
case CS_EVENT_PM_RESUME: /* power management event */
+
==== idea ====
link->state &= ~DEV_SUSPEND;
+
  
/* … */
+
"boot ide" doesn't use a filesystem at all.  I suspect that what you
 +
really want is "boot vfat", which uses a VFAT filesystem.  The disk can
 +
(indeed, probably should) have a partition table.
  
case CS_EVENT_CARD_RESET:
+
Bootldr can't read ext2, so you would need to create a special /boot
CardServices (RequestConfiguration, link->handle, &link->conf);
+
partition as VFAT.  Other than that, and the normal drama relating to
break;
+
having the root partition on a PCMCIA device, it should boot Debian just
}
+
fine.
  
return 0;
 
}
 
Listing Five shows the routine that configures the generic device driver, XX.o, with resource information like I/O and memory window addresses. After this step, data flow to and from the PCMCIA card passes through the XX.o driver and is transparent to the rest of the layers. Any interrupts generated by the PCMCIA card in response to data reception or transmit completion are handled by an interrupt handler that is part of XX.o.
 
Listing Five: Configuring the generic device driver (XX.o)
 
  
/* This will make the XX device available to the system */
+
==== proof fix up ====
  
static int XX_config ()
+
I have been trying to boot Intimate off of a 2GB
{
+
Kingston PCMCIA hard drive. It looks like the boot
 +
vfat function is not reading the partition table on
 +
the drive correctly. I have found several posts by
 +
other people who have 2GB or 5GB drives that have
 +
identical errors. I would like to know if anyone has
 +
succeeded in working around this problem.
  
if (CardServices (GetConfigurationInfo, handle, &config) == CS_SUCCESS) {
+
    Hmm...I wrote that wiki based on my own experience getting it going.
/* If the card is already configured, configure XX.o with
+
the I/O port and IRQ information */
+
return (setup_XX (base_address, irq));
+
}
+
  
/* Read configuration tuples from the card’s CIS space, and
+
    Unless the 4GB card is just too big for the sleeve or some other
accordingly configure IRQs and base addresses */
+
    unidentified problem, it should work.
tuple.DesiredTuple = CISTPL_CFTABLE_ENTRY; /* Specify Desired Tuple */
+
CardServices (GetTupleData, handle, tuple);
+
CardServices (ParseTuple, handle, tuple, parse);
+
  
/* … */
+
So I believe I located the problem.  This line from the mkdosfs man page:
  
/* See include/pcmcia/ds.h for the definition of
 
the ink stucture */
 
  
/* Reserve IO port window */
 
CardServices (RequestIO, link->handle, &link->io);
 
/* Reserve IRQ */
 
CardServices (RequestIRQ, link->handle, &link->irq);
 
/* Actually configure the socket */
 
CardServices (RequestConfiguration, link->handle, &link->conf);
 
  
/* … */
+
    -F FAT-size
 +
                Specifies  the type of file allocation tables used (12, 16 or 32
 +
                bit).  If  nothing  is  specified,  mkdosfs  will  automatically
 +
                select  between  12  and  16  bit,  whatever fits better for the
 +
                filesystem size.  32 bit FAT  (FAT32  format)  must  (still)  be
 +
                selected explicitly if you want it.
  
/* Call setup_XX, which is part of the XX.o driver
 
with resource information */
 
setup_XX (link->io.BasePort1, link->irq.AssignedIRQ);
 
  
/* … */
+
Running "mkdosfs -F16 /dev/hde1" on a 256 MB vfat partition created a bootable CF microdrive. My guess is that for most of the partition sizes I chose, it defaulted to FAT12 when I didn't specify that option, even though I selected FAT16 in fdisk. Thanks again for your help.
}
+
From this point, the XX.o driver is ready to handle the data flow to and from the card.
+
  
Driver Services
+
==== issue ====
Driver Services is the kernel piece responsible for communicating with the cardmgr daemon. It’s essentially a character device driver whose major number is obtained by cardmgr from the process filesystem entry, /proc/devices.
+
cardmgr monitors PCMCIA sockets for card events by polling Driver Services. It sends I/O control commands to Driver Services to exchange information between kernel space and user space.
+
  
Tying the Pieces Together
+
[*] BootBlaster locks up WinCE as soon as I run it!
As you saw in Figure One, the PCMCIA layer consists of various components and the data flow path between the components can sometimes get complicated. Let’s trace the code path from the time you insert a PCMCIA card until an application starts transferring data to the card.
+
-> If you are running BootBlaster from an SD card, try copying it to a location on the iPAQ itself eg. the "iPAQ file store"
1.During startup, the cardmgr daemon starts polling on the PCMCIA socket. This translates to an invocation of the poll entry point that is part of Driver Services (ds.o).
+
2.When you insert the card, the interrupt handler that is part of the host controller device driver detects the event. It schedules its interrupt bottom handler, which in turn invokes the event handler that is part of Card Services.
+
3.Card Services parses the event (using parse_events()) and dispatches it to the registered client device driver (using send_events()). The event also gets notified to the Driver Services handler (ds_event) that was registered with Card Services during initialization.
+
4.When the Driver Services event handler gets notified that the card has been inserted, it wakes up the cardmgr daemon that’s polling it for data.
+
5.cardmgr sends a series of I/O control (ioctl()) commands to Driver Services and obtains information about the inserted card, such as the make, model, and manufacturer ID of your device.
+
6.cardmgr examines its configuration file (/etc/pcmcia/config) and determines and loads the device drivers that need to be bound to this card (XX_cs.o and XX.o in Figure One).
+
7.When the XX_cs module gets loaded, it registers itself with Card Services as shown in Listing One.
+
8.cardmgr now issues a bind request to Driver Services, which binds the XX_cs.o module with the corresponding PCMCIA socket. This results in the invocation of the XX_attach entry point that was registered by the client driver in Listing Three.
+
9.The XX_attach entry point invokes XX_config that configures the generic device driver (XX.o) as shown in Listing Five. This configures XX.o with resources like memory windows.
+
10.cardmgr issues another ioctl() command to Driver Services and deciphers device class specific details. In the case of a networking card, this includes the network interface name to which the card has been bound. cardmgr uses this information to start necessary application services.
+
From this point, data transfer is done by XX-applications via driver entry points that are part of the generic XX.o driver. The form factor of the device (for example, whether it is a PCMCIA disk or an actual IDE disk) is transparent to the applications as well as to the XX.o driver.
+
  
Looking at the Sources
 
In the Linux source tree, the drivers/pcmcia/ subdirectory contains the sources for Card Services, Driver Services, and PCMCIA host adapter device drivers. Client device drivers can be found under the particular device class subdirectory. So, drivers for PCMCIA networking drivers can be found under drivers/net/pcmcia/. PCMCIA-related structures are defined in header files present in the include/pcmcia/ directory. Note that some of the client driver locations have changed in the 2.6 tree.
 
The PCMCIA project web site, http://pcmcia-cs.sourceforge.net, contains sample client driver (like dummy_cs.c), sources for the user mode Card Manager daemon and a useful programming guide that documents the features offered by kernel Card Services.
 
  
=== pcmcia sleeve ===
+
http://www.mail-archive.com/angstrom-distro-users@linuxtogo.org/msg01408.html
  
There is an issue with pcmcia sleeve: the problem doesn't occur with single slot sleeves with part number 173396-001 but does occur in dual slot sleeves with part number
+
I am attempting to boot from a 4GB Hitachi Microdrive on an iPAQ h5500 with a PCMCIA-cf, following the steps at:
216198-B21.  And we have only today found that the problem also occurs
+
with new (?) model single slot sleeves with part number 249704-B22.
+
  
 +
http://www.handhelds.org/moin/moin.cgi/BootingLinuxFromCF
  
sources fix up is required
+
The most common problem I am running into is the "filename too long" error.  There was a quick fix posted online that failed for me (remounting the vfat partition as msdos and recopying initrd, param and zimage in).  There was also a suggestion that bootldr cannot handle large vfat partitions (> 32 MB), but the post was years old.  Is this still the case?
  
 
+
Here is what happens using
how to write a pcmcia kernel driver http://www.linux-mag.com/id/1981
+
 
+
* sa11xx_drv_pcmcia_probe -> soc_common_drv_pcmcia_probe
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
* drivers/pcmcia/cs.c: socket_insert
+
* drivers/pcmcia/pcmcia_ioctl.c:  p_dev = pcmcia_device_add(s, bind_info->function);
+
* drivers/pcmcia/ds.c:  "pcmcia: registering new device %s\n" -> struct pcmcia_device * pcmcia_device_add(struct pcmcia_socket *s, unsigned int function)
+
 
+
=== dmesg ===
+
on 04-12-2009
+
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
nothing
+
boot> boot vfat                                                               
 +
warning, no sleeve detected.  attempting pcmcia insert anyway.                 
 +
h5400_control_egpio: not implemented yet for this egpio                       
 +
h3600_sleeve_insert: no spi read, defaulting sleeve vendor                     
 +
h3600_sleeve_insert: no spi read, defaulting sleeve deviceid                   
 +
sleeve vendorid=00001125                                                     
 +
sleeve deviceid=0000D7C3                                                     
 +
pcmcia_probe_sleeve                                                           
 +
h5400_control_egpio: not implemented yet for this egpio                       
 +
  probing for dual pcmcia sleeve                                               
 +
  dual_pcmcia_linkup[0]->prc=00000000                                         
 +
dual_pcmcia_probe_sleeve                                                       
 +
h5400_control_egpio: not implemented yet for this egpio                       
 +
h3600_sleeve_insert: matched driver Compaq PC Card Sleeve                     
 +
cis[0] =000000FF                                                               
 +
end                                                                           
 +
pcmcia_insert: funcid = 00000000                                               
 +
cis[0] =000000FF                                                               
 +
end                                                                           
 +
pcmcia_insert: funcid = 00000000                                               
 +
Mounting vfat on partition 00000000                                           
 +
cmd vfat mount: partid=00000000                                               
 +
vfat mount: reading bpb_info                                                   
 +
pcmcia_insert: funcid = 00000000                                               
 +
Mounting vfat on partition 00000000                                           
 +
cmd vfat mount: partid=00000000                                               
 +
vfat mount: reading bpb_info                                                   
 +
Reading params from file: /boot/params                                       
 +
vfat_find_file_entry: fname='boot/params'                                     
 +
                    dirname='boot'                                             
 +
                  basename='PARAMS'                                           
 +
vfat_find_dir_entry: fname='boot'                                             
 +
                  dirname=''                                                 
 +
                  basename='boot'                                             
 +
  searching root_dir_entries                                                   
 +
Invalid long filename entry: filename too long                                 
 +
Reading kernel from file: boot/zImage                                         
 +
vfat_find_file_entry: fname='boot/zImage'                                     
 +
                    dirname='boot'                                             
 +
                  basename='ZIMAGE'                                           
 +
vfat_find_dir_entry: fname='boot'                                             
 +
                  dirname=''                                                 
 +
                  basename='boot'                                             
 +
  searching root_dir_entries                                                   
 +
Invalid long filename entry: filename too long                                 
 +
read zimage failed rc=FFFFFFFE 
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
 +
=== haret ===
  
=== gentoo, booting from the CF ===
+
http://www.handhelds.org/~koconnor/haret/
  
initialize it
+
obsoleted info http://www.handhelds.org/moin/moin.cgi/HaRET
  
<pre>
+
==== issue ====
  1. boot> sleeve insert
+
  2. boot> pcmcia insert
+
</pre>
+
  
http://handhelds.org/moin/moin.cgi/BootingLinuxFromCF
+
http://www.mail-archive.com/haret@handhelds.org/msg00770.html
  
http://blog.lsweb.eu/index.php?itemid=2
+
=== ideas2 ====
 +
 
 +
http://www.math.bme.hu/~lackac/ipaq/linux-ipaq/Linux-iPAQ-HOWTO-1.1.htm
  
 
== HW expansion, hack and such a stuff ==
 
== HW expansion, hack and such a stuff ==
Line 974: Line 918:
 
== image of the previous kernel 2.4 rootfs and such a stuff ==
 
== image of the previous kernel 2.4 rootfs and such a stuff ==
  
 
+
Media:old-roofs.jffs2|old-rootfs.jffs2
[[Media:old-roofs.jffs2|old-rootfs.jffs2]]
+
 
+
  
 
== About stage3 ==
 
== About stage3 ==
Line 1,105: Line 1,047:
  
  
==== X11 on iPAQ ====
+
==== nano X11 on iPAQ ====
  
the right choice seems to be nano-X, that means http://www.microwindows.org
+
'''so the nano-X does not provide X, it's rather a desktop environment'''
it is compiling (with the extremely essential support) with just a bit issue with IPAQ_KB_OPEN
+
  
 +
 +
What are Nano-X's graphics features?
 +
 +
Nano-X features full RGB color support, color mapping, optimized palette bitmap drawing, true color and palletized displays, and a 3d look-and-feel. Overlapped and child windows are supported, with complete window and client area clipping. Proportional and fixed fonts are supported, along with utilities for converting fonts or bitmap files. Optimized painting algorithms are used to allow maximum response while the user is moving windows on the screen.  Off screen drawing and bit-blit routines are implemented for flicker-free drawing and animation. Polygon draws, fills and arbitrary region clipping are also supported.
 +
 +
so the first right choice seems to be nano-X, that means http://www.microwindows.org, that in my actual branch ... that will be supported by a specific gentoo overlay ... well it has a bit of issues that require me to compile it with the most extremely essential support i can do in order to have it running
 +
 +
IPAQ_KB requires you have the tiny plastic keyboard attached on the back of your iPAQ ... if you have such an extra stuff (you could buy on ebay for 15 euro or less) ... well the software driver has a bit of issue with IPAQ_KB_OPEN, so i am considering to use TTYKBD
 +
 +
TTYKBD uses a very simple ascii-only return values, and won't return function key values correctly. ... on iPAQ it needs the CONSOLE set
 +
 +
The mouse type is setup in the Nano-X configuration file, src/config. The mouse type to be used with Nano-X is set in the config file and the specified mouse driver is then compiled in. Touch panel drivers use the mouse interface with a specific driver. Following are the currently supported mouse types settable in the config file:
 +
 +
* '''IPAQMOUSE''' - touch panel driver for iPAQ/Assabet (mknode /dev/h3600_ts c 11 0)
 +
* '''NOMOUSE''' - no mouse/touch panel in system
  
  
Line 1,301: Line 1,257:
  
 
== All you have to kwnow about The pcmcia ==
 
== All you have to kwnow about The pcmcia ==
 
+
[[Flameman/pcmcia]]
from http://pcmcia-cs.sourceforge.net/ftp/doc/PCMCIA-PROG.html
+
 
+
=== Basic Concepts ===
+
 
+
==== The socket interface ====
+
 
+
The PC Card bus has two basic operating modes: ``memory-only'' and ``memory and IO''. The first mode was defined by the original Version 1.0 specification and only supports simple memory cards. The second mode, defined in Version 2.0, redefines a few of the memory card control signals to support IO port addressing and IO interrupt signaling.
+
 
+
PC Card devices have two memory spaces: ``attribute memory'' and ``common memory''. The interface can address up to 16MB of each type of memory. Attribute memory is typically used for holding descriptive information and configuration registers. Common memory may include the bulk storage of a memory card, or device buffers in the case of IO cards. All cards that are compliant with the version 2.0 PC Card specification should have a Card Information Structure (or ``CIS'') in attribute memory, which describes the card and how it should be configured.
+
 
+
Separate control signals allow cards to signal their operating status to the host. These signals include card detect, ready/busy, write protect, battery low, and battery dead.
+
 
+
The ``memory and IO'' interface mode allows cards to address up to 64K of IO ports. It also allows cards to signal IO interrupts, and routes one card output to the host system's speaker. In this mode, several of the memory card control signals are unavailable because those pins are used to carry the extra IO card signals. On some cards, these signals can instead be read from a special configuration register in attribute memory, the ``Pin Replacement Register''.
+
 
+
==== The socket controller ====
+
 
+
The socket controller serves as a bridge between PC Card devices and the system bus. There are several varieties of controllers, but all share the same basic functionality. The Socket Services software layer takes care of all the details of how to program the host controller.
+
 
+
The socket controller has the job of mapping windows of addresses in the host memory and IO spaces to windows of addresses in card space. All supported controllers support at least four independent memory windows and two IO windows per socket.
+
 
+
Each memory window is defined by a base address in the host address space, a base address in the card address space, and a window size. Some controllers differ in their alignment rules for memory windows, but all controllers will support windows whose size is at least 4K and also a power of two, and where the base address is a multiple of the window size. Each window can be programmed to point to either attribute or common memory.
+
 
+
IO windows differ from memory windows in that host addresses that fall within an IO window are not modified before they are passed on to an IO card. Effectively, the base addresses of the window in the host and card address spaces are always equal. IO windows also have no alignment or size restrictions; an IO window can start and end on any byte boundary in the 64K IO address space.
+
 
+
The PC Card bus defines a single interrupt signal from the card to the controller. The controller then has the responsibility of steering this interrupt to an appropriate interrupt request (``irq'') line. All controllers support steering card IO interrupts to essentially any free interrupt line. Because steering happens in the controller, the card itself is unaware of which interrupt it uses.
+
 
+
All PC Card controllers can generate interrupts in response to card status changes. These interrupts are distinct from the IO interrupts generated by an IO card, and use a separate interrupt line. Signals that can generate interrupts include card detect, ready/busy, write protect, battery low, and battery dead.
+
 
+
=== Card Services Subfunction Descriptions ===
+
 
+
Card Services calls have the general form:
+
 
+
    #include "cs_types.h"
+
    #include "cs.h"
+
 
+
    int CardServices(int subfunc, void *arg1, void *arg2, ...);
+
 
+
Some Card Services functions require additional #include statements. The particular subfunction determines the number of expected arguments. A return code of CS_SUCCESS indicates that a call succeeded. Other return codes indicate errors.
+
 
+
==== Client management functions ====
+
 
+
Device drivers that use Card Services functions are called ``clients''. A device driver should use the RegisterClient call to get a client handle before using other services. Most Card Services functions will take this client handle as an argument. Before unloading, drivers should also unregister with DeregisterClient.
+
 
+
RegisterClient
+
 
+
    int CardServices(RegisterClient, client_handle_t *client, client_reg_t *reg);
+
 
+
The client_reg_t data structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef struct client_reg_t {
+
            dev_info_t      *dev_info;
+
            u_int          Attributes;
+
            u_int          EventMask;
+
            int            (*event_handler)(event_t event, int priority,
+
                                            event_callback_args_t *args);
+
            event_callback_args_t  event_callback_args;
+
            u_int          Version;
+
    } client_reg_t;
+
 
+
RegisterClient establishes a link between a client driver and Card Services, and connects the client with an appropriate socket. The dev_info parameter is used by Card Services to match the client with a socket and function; this correspondence is normally established by Driver Services via a call to BindDevice. If successful, a client handle will be returned in client.
+
 
+
The following flags can be specified in Attributes:
+
 
+
INFO_MASTER_CLIENT
+
 
+
    For use only by the Driver Services client. Among other things, specifies that this client should not be automatically unbound when a card is ejected from this socket.
+
INFO_IO_CLIENT
+
 
+
    Specifies that this client is an IO card driver.
+
INFO_MTD_CLIENT
+
 
+
    Specifies that this client is a Memory Technology Driver.
+
INFO_MEM_CLIENT
+
 
+
    Specifies that this client is a memory card driver.
+
INFO_CARD_SHARE
+
 
+
    Included for compatibility, has no effect.
+
INFO_CARD_EXCL
+
 
+
    Included for compatibility, has no effect.
+
 
+
EventMask specifies what events this client should be notified of. The event_handler entry point will be called by Card Services when an event in EventMask is processed. The event_handler_args structure is a template for the structure that will be passed to the event handler. The Version parameter identifies the Card Services version level that this driver expects; it is currently ignored.
+
 
+
A driver should be prepared to handle Card Services events before calling RegisterClient. This call will always generate a CS_REGISTRATION_COMPLETE event, and may also generate an artificial CS_CARD_INSERTION event if the socket is currently occupied.
+
 
+
Return codes:
+
 
+
CS_OUT_OF_RESOURCE
+
 
+
    An appropriate socket could not be found for this driver.
+
 
+
DeregisterClient
+
 
+
    int CardServices(DeregisterClient, client_handle_t client);
+
 
+
DeregisterClient severs the connection between a client and Card Services. It should be called after the client has freed any resources it has allocated. Once a connection is broken, it cannot be reestablished until after another call to BindDevice.
+
 
+
Return codes:
+
 
+
CS_BAD_HANDLE
+
 
+
    The client handle is invalid.
+
CS_IN_USE
+
 
+
    The client still has allocated resources, such as IO port windows or an interrupt, or the socket configuration is locked.
+
 
+
SetEventMask
+
 
+
    int CardServices(SetEventMask, client_handle_t client, eventmask_t *mask);
+
 
+
The eventmask_t structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef struct eventmask_t {
+
            u_int          Attributes;
+
            u_int          EventMask;
+
    } eventmask_t;
+
 
+
SetEventMask updates the mask that determines which events this client will be notified of.
+
 
+
Return codes:
+
 
+
CS_BAD_HANDLE
+
 
+
    The client handle is invalid.
+
 
+
BindDevice
+
 
+
    int CardServices(BindDevice, bind_req_t *req);
+
 
+
The bind_req structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef struct bind_req_t {
+
            socket_t        Socket;
+
            u_char          Function;
+
            dev_info_t      *dev_info;
+
    } bind_req_t;
+
 
+
BindDevice associates a device driver with a particular socket. It is normally called by Driver Services after a newly inserted card has been identified. Once a driver has been bound to a socket, it will be eligible to register as a client of that socket. Note that this call does not take a client handle as an argument. This is the only Card Services call that takes a socket number as an argument.
+
 
+
The Function field specifies which function(s) of a multifunction card are to be bound to this driver. Function numbers correspond to entries in the card's CISTPL_LONGLINK_MFC tuple. If Function is set to BIND_FN_ALL, the driver will be bound to all card functions. A driver will only be able to access CIS tuples corresponding to functions for which it is bound.
+
 
+
Return codes:
+
 
+
CS_BAD_SOCKET
+
 
+
    The specified socket number is invalid.
+
 
+
3.2 Socket state control
+
 
+
These functions are more or less concerned with getting and setting the current operating state of a socket. GetStatus returns the current socket state. ResetCard is used to send a hard reset signal to a socket. SuspendCard and ResumeCard can be used to power down and power up a socket without releasing the drivers currently bound to that socket. EjectCard and InsertCard essentially mimic real card ejection and insertion events.
+
 
+
GetStatus
+
 
+
    int CardServices(GetStatus, client_handle_t client, cs_status_t *status);
+
 
+
The cs_status_t data structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef struct cs_status_t {
+
            u_char          Function;
+
            u_int          CardState;
+
            u_int          SocketState;
+
    } cs_status_t;
+
 
+
GetStatus returns the current status of a client's socket. For cards that are configured in IO mode, GetStatus uses the Pin Replacement Register and Extended Status Register to determine the card status. For normal clients, the Function field is ignored, but for clients bound with BIND_FN_ALL, this field specifies the function whose configuration registers should be used to determine the socket state, if the socket is currently configured. The following flags are defined in CardState:
+
 
+
CS_EVENT_CARD_DETECT
+
 
+
    Specifies that the socket is occupied.
+
CS_EVENT_CB_DETECT
+
 
+
    Specifies that the socket is occupied by a CardBus device.
+
CS_EVENT_WRITE_PROTECT
+
 
+
    Specifies that the card is currently write protected.
+
CS_EVENT_BATTERY_LOW
+
 
+
    Specifies that the card battery is low.
+
CS_EVENT_BATTERY_DEAD
+
 
+
    Specifies that the card battery is dead.
+
CS_EVENT_READY_CHANGE
+
 
+
    Specifies that the card is ready.
+
CS_EVENT_PM_SUSPEND
+
 
+
    Specifies that the socket is suspended.
+
CS_EVENT_REQUEST_ATTENTION
+
 
+
    Specifies that the request attention bit in the extended status register is set.
+
CS_EVENT_CARD_INSERTION
+
 
+
    Specifies that a card insertion event is in progress. An insertion event will be sent to the client when socket setup is complete.
+
CS_EVENT_3VCARD
+
 
+
    Indicates that the card supports 3.3V operation.
+
CS_EVENT_XVCARD
+
 
+
    Indicates that the card supports ``X.X''V operation. The actual voltage is currently undefined in the specification.
+
 
+
SocketState is currently unused, but in theory, it should latch changes in the state of the fields in CardState.
+
 
+
Return codes:
+
 
+
CS_BAD_HANDLE
+
 
+
    The client handle is invalid.
+
 
+
ResetCard
+
 
+
    int CardServices(ResetCard, client_handle_t client);
+
 
+
ResetCard requests that a client's socket be reset. When this call is made, Card Services sends all clients a CS_EVENT_RESET_REQUEST event. If any client rejects the request, Card Services sends the initiating client a CS_EVENT_RESET_COMPLETE event with event_callback_args.info set to the return code of the client that rejected the request.
+
 
+
If all clients agree to the request, Card Services sends a CS_EVENT_RESET_PHYSICAL event, then resets the socket. When the socket signals that it is ready, a CS_EVENT_CARD_RESET event is generated. Finally, a CS_EVENT_RESET_COMPLETE event is sent to the initiating client, with event_callback_args.info set to zero.
+
 
+
Return codes:
+
 
+
CS_BAD_HANDLE
+
 
+
    The client handle is invalid.
+
CS_NO_CARD
+
 
+
    The socket assigned to this client is currently vacant.
+
CS_IN_USE
+
 
+
    This socket is currently being reset.
+
 
+
SuspendCard
+
 
+
    int CardServices(SuspendCard, client_handle_t client);
+
 
+
Card Services sends all clients CS_EVENT_PM_SUSPEND events, then shuts down and turns off power to the socket.
+
 
+
Return codes:
+
 
+
CS_BAD_HANDLE
+
 
+
    The client handle is invalid.
+
CS_NO_CARD
+
 
+
    The socket assigned to this client is currently vacant.
+
CS_IN_USE
+
 
+
    This socket is already suspended.
+
 
+
ResumeCard
+
 
+
    int CardServices(ResumeCard, client_handle_t client);
+
 
+
After restoring power to the socket, Card Services will notify all clients with CS_EVENT_PM_RESUME events.
+
 
+
Return codes:
+
 
+
CS_BAD_HANDLE
+
 
+
    The client handle is invalid.
+
CS_NO_CARD
+
 
+
    The socket assigned to this client is currently vacant.
+
CS_IN_USE
+
 
+
    This socket is not currently suspended.
+
 
+
EjectCard
+
 
+
    int CardServices(EjectCard, client_handle_t client);
+
 
+
Card Services sends eject events to all clients, then shuts down and turns off power to the socket. All clients except for Driver Services will be unlinked from the socket.
+
 
+
Return codes:
+
 
+
CS_BAD_HANDLE
+
 
+
    The client handle is invalid.
+
CS_NO_CARD
+
 
+
    The socket assigned to this client is currently vacant.
+
 
+
InsertCard
+
 
+
    int CardServices(InsertCard, client_handle_t client);
+
 
+
Card Services sends insertion events to all clients of this socket (normally, only Driver Services).
+
 
+
Return codes:
+
 
+
CS_BAD_HANDLE
+
 
+
    The client handle is invalid.
+
CS_NO_CARD
+
 
+
    The socket assigned to this client is currently vacant.
+
CS_IN_USE
+
 
+
    The socket has already been configured.
+
 
+
3.3 IO card configuration calls
+
 
+
The normal order of events is for a driver to reserve IO ports and an interrupt line with calls to RequestIO and RequestIRQ, then to call RequestConfiguration to actually configure the socket. If any of these calls fails, a driver should be sure to release any resources it successfully reserved.
+
 
+
Multifunction cards can have separate configurations for each card function. However, the configurations do need to be consistent with one another. While each card function has its own set of configuration registers, each socket has only a single interrupt line and can only map two contiguous ranges of IO ports.
+
 
+
CardBus cards are configured somewhat differently. The RequestIO and RequestConfiguration calls have similar roles, however, Card Services takes responsibility for most of the configuration details, and the contents of the request structures are ignored.
+
 
+
RequestIO
+
 
+
    int CardServices(RequestIO, client_handle_t client, io_req_t *req);
+
 
+
The io_req_t data structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef struct io_req_t {
+
            ioaddr_t        BasePort1;
+
            ioaddr_t        NumPorts1;
+
            u_int          Attributes1;
+
            ioaddr_t        BasePort2;
+
            ioaddr_t        NumPorts2;
+
            u_int          Attributes2;
+
            u_int          IOAddrLines;
+
    } io_req_t;
+
 
+
RequestIO reserves IO port windows for a card. BasePort1 specifies the base IO port address of the window to be reserved. If NumPorts2 is non-zero, a second IO port window will also be reserved. IOAddrLines specifies the number of address lines that are actually decoded by the card. The IO port allocation algorithm assumes that any alias of the requested address(es) that preserves the lower IOAddrLines bits will be acceptable, and will update BasePort1 and BasePort2 to reflect the address range(s) actually assigned.
+
 
+
Prior to release 3.1.4, the IOAddrLines field was ignored. The allocator always tried to assign the exact address range requested, unless the base address was zero; in that case, it would assign any available window aligned to the nearest power of two larger than the window size. The new allocator verifies that the IOAddrLines parameter agrees with the requested window parameters, and defaults to the pre-3.1.4 behavior if an inconsistency is found.
+
 
+
With multifunction cards, this call will allocate IO ports for each card function in such a way that all a card's ports can be mapped by the two low-level IO port windows associated with each physical socket. For example, if the drivers for a hypothetical four-function card each attempt to allocate one IO window of 8 ports, Card Services will consolidate these into a single contiguous 32-port block.
+
 
+
When this function is invoked by a CardBus client, the IO request structure is ignored. Instead, Card Services examines the card and allocates any necessary system resources: this includes IO and memory space, as well as an interrupt, if needed. One call will reserve all resources needed for all card functions, not just the function of the client making the call.
+
 
+
This call does not actually configure a socket's IO windows: this is done by a subsequent call to RequestConfiguration.
+
 
+
The following flags can be specified in Attributes1 and Attributes2:
+
 
+
IO_DATA_PATH_WIDTH
+
 
+
    This field may either be IO_DATA_PATH_WIDTH_16 for 16-bit access, or IO_DATA_PATH_WIDTH_8 for 8-bit access, or IO_DATA_PATH_WIDTH_AUTO to dynamically size the bus based on the access size.
+
 
+
Return codes:
+
 
+
CS_BAD_HANDLE
+
 
+
    The client handle is invalid.
+
CS_NO_CARD
+
 
+
    The socket assigned to this client is currently vacant.
+
CS_IN_USE
+
 
+
    This socket's IO windows have already been reserved.
+
CS_CONFIGURATION_LOCKED
+
 
+
    This socket's configuration has been locked by a call to RequestConfiguration.
+
CS_BAD_ATTRIBUTE
+
 
+
    An unsupported attribute flag was specified.
+
CS_UNSUPPORTED_FUNCTION
+
 
+
    For a CardBus client, this is returned if Card Services was not configured with CardBus support.
+
 
+
ReleaseIO
+
 
+
    int CardServices(ReleaseIO, client_handle_t client, io_req_t *req);
+
 
+
ReleaseIO un-reserves IO port windows allocated by a previous call to RequestIO. The req parameter should be the same one passed to RequestIO. If several card functions are sharing a larger IO port window, ports released by one function may not become available for other uses until all card functions have released their IO ports.
+
 
+
For a CardBus client, this call releases all system resources allocated for this card.
+
 
+
Return codes:
+
 
+
CS_BAD_HANDLE
+
 
+
    The client handle is invalid.
+
CS_CONFIGURATION_LOCKED
+
 
+
    This socket's configuration has been locked by a call to RequestConfiguration. The configuration should be released before calling ReleaseIO.
+
CS_BAD_ARGS
+
 
+
    The parameters in req do not match the parameters passed to RequestIO.
+
 
+
RequestIRQ
+
 
+
    int CardServices(RequestIRQ, client_handle_t client, irq_req_t *req);
+
 
+
The irq_req_t structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef struct irq_req_t {
+
            u_int          Attributes;
+
            u_int          AssignedIRQ;
+
            u_int          IRQInfo1, IRQInfo2;
+
            void            *(Handler)(int, struct pt_regs *);
+
            void            *Instance
+
    } irq_req_t;
+
 
+
RequestIRQ reserves an interrupt line for use by a card. The IRQInfo1 and IRQInfo2 fields correspond to the interrupt description bytes in a CFTABLE_ENTRY tuple. If IRQ_INFO2_VALID is set in IRQInfo1, then IRQInfo2 is a bit-mapped mask of allowed interrupt values. Each bit corresponds to one interrupt line: bit 0 = irq 0, bit 1 = irq 1, etc. So, a mask of 0x1100 would mean that interrupts 12 and 8 could be used. If IRQ_INFO2_VALID is not set, IRQInfo1 is just the desired interrupt number. If the call is successful, the reserved interrupt is returned in AssignedIRQ.
+
 
+
If the IRQ_HANDLER_PRESENT flag is set, then this call also specifies an interrupt handler to be installed when the interrupt is enabled. When RequestConfiguration is called, the handler given by Handler will be installed. For 2.0 and later kernels, the interrupt handler will be installed with the device ``instance'' given in Instance. For pre-2.1.60 kernels, the kernel irq2dev_map table will also be updated. With multifunction cards, the interrupt will be allocated in shared mode, and the handler(s) have responsibility for determining which card function(s) require attention when an interrupt is received. If a client instead bypasses Card Services to install its own interrupt service routine, it should allocate the interrupt in shared mode if this client could be bound to a multifunction card.
+
 
+
The following flags can be specified in Attributes:
+
 
+
IRQ_FORCED_PULSE
+
 
+
    Specifies that the interrupt should be configured for pulsed mode, rather than the default level mode.
+
IRQ_TYPE_TIME
+
 
+
    Specifies that this interrupt can be time-shared with other Card Services drivers. Only one driver should enable the interrupt at any time.
+
IRQ_FIRST_SHARED
+
 
+
    In conjunction with IRQ_TYPE_TIME, this should be set by the first driver requesting a shared interrupt.
+
IRQ_HANDLER_PRESENT
+
 
+
    Indicates that the Handler field points to an interrupt service routine that should be installed.
+
 
+
Return codes:
+
 
+
CS_BAD_HANDLE
+
 
+
    The client handle is invalid.
+
CS_NO_CARD
+
 
+
    The socket assigned to this client is currently vacant.
+
CS_IN_USE
+
 
+
    An interrupt has already been reserved for this socket, or the requested interrupt is unavailable.
+
CS_CONFIGURATION_LOCKED
+
 
+
    This card function's configuration has been locked by a call to RequestConfiguration.
+
CS_BAD_ATTRIBUTE
+
 
+
    An unsupported attribute flag was specified.
+
 
+
ReleaseIRQ
+
 
+
    int CardServices(ReleaseIRQ, client_handle_t client, irq_req_t *req);
+
 
+
ReleaseIRQ un-reserves an interrupt assigned by an earlier call to RequestIRQ. The req structure should be the same structure that was passed to RequestIRQ. If a handler was specified in the RequestIRQ call, it will be unregistered at this time.
+
 
+
Return codes:
+
 
+
CS_BAD_HANDLE
+
 
+
    The client handle is invalid.
+
CS_CONFIGURATION_LOCKED
+
 
+
    This socket's configuration has been locked by a call to RequestConfiguration. The configuration should be released before calling ReleaseIRQ.
+
CS_BAD_IRQ
+
 
+
    The parameters in req do not match the parameters passed to RequestIRQ.
+
 
+
RequestConfiguration
+
 
+
    int CardServices(RequestConfiguration, client_handle_t client, config_req_t *req);
+
 
+
The config_req_t structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef struct config_req_t {
+
            u_int          Attributes;
+
            u_int          Vcc, Vpp1, Vpp2;
+
            u_int          IntType;
+
            u_int          ConfigBase;
+
            u_char          Status, Pin, Copy, ExtStatus;
+
            u_char          ConfigIndex;
+
            u_int          Present;
+
    } config_req_t;
+
 
+
RequestConfiguration is responsible for actually configuring a socket. This includes setting voltages, setting CIS configuration registers, setting up IO port windows, and setting up interrupts.
+
 
+
IntType specifies the type of interface to use for this card. It may be INT_MEMORY, INT_MEMORY_AND_IO, or INT_CARDBUS. Voltages are specified in units of 1/10 volt. Currently, Vpp1 must equal Vpp2.
+
 
+
With multifunction cards, each card function is configured separately. Each function has its own set of CIS configuration registers. However, all functions must be configured with the same power and interface settings.
+
 
+
When invoked by a CardBus client, most of the request structure is ignored, and all card functions will be configured based on data collected in a previous RequestIO call. This includes configuring the CardBus bridge, as well as initializing the Command, Base Address, and Interrupt Line registers in each card function's configuration space. IntType must be set to INT_CARDBUS in this case.
+
 
+
The following flags can be specified in Attributes. DMA and speaker control are not supported on all systems.
+
 
+
CONF_ENABLE_IRQ
+
 
+
    Enable the IO interrupt reserved by a previous call to RequestIRQ.
+
CONF_ENABLE_DMA
+
 
+
    Enable DMA accesses for this socket.
+
CONF_ENABLE_SPKR
+
 
+
    Enable speaker output from this socket.
+
 
+
The Present parameter is a bit map specifying which CIS configuration registers are implemented by this card. ConfigBase gives the offset of the configuration registers in attribute memory. The following registers can be specified:
+
 
+
PRESENT_OPTION
+
 
+
    Specifies that the Configuration Option Register is present. The COR register will be set using the ConfigIndex parameter.
+
PRESENT_STATUS
+
 
+
    Specifies that the Card Configuration and Status Register is present. The CCSR will be initialized with the Status parameter.
+
PRESENT_PIN_REPLACE
+
 
+
    Specifies that the Pin Replacement Register is present. The PRR will be initialized with the Pin parameter.
+
PRESENT_COPY
+
 
+
    Specifies that the Socket and Copy Register is present. The SCR will be initialized with the Copy parameter.
+
PRESENT_EXT_STATUS
+
 
+
    Specifies that the Extended Status Register is present. The ESR will be initialized with the ExtStatus parameter.
+
 
+
Return codes:
+
 
+
CS_BAD_HANDLE
+
 
+
    The client handle is invalid.
+
CS_NO_CARD
+
 
+
    The socket assigned to this client is currently vacant.
+
CS_OUT_OF_RESOURCE
+
 
+
    Card Services was unable to allocate a memory window to access the card's configuration registers.
+
CS_CONFIGURATION_LOCKED
+
 
+
    This card's configuration has already been locked by another call to RequestConfiguration.
+
CS_BAD_VCC
+
 
+
    The requested Vcc voltage is not supported.
+
CS_BAD_VPP
+
 
+
    The requested Vpp1/Vpp2 voltage is not supported.
+
CS_UNSUPPORTED_MODE
+
 
+
    A non-CardBus client attempted to configure a CardBus card, or a CardBus client attempted to configure a non-CardBus card.
+
 
+
ModifyConfiguration
+
 
+
    int CardServices(ModifyConfiguration, client_handle_t client, modconf_t *mod);
+
 
+
The modconf_t structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef struct modconf_t {
+
            u_int          Attributes;
+
            u_int          Vcc, Vpp1, Vpp2;
+
    } modconf_t;
+
 
+
ModifyConfiguration modifies some attributes of a socket that has been configured by a call to RequestConfiguration.
+
 
+
The following flags can be specified in Attributes:
+
 
+
CONF_IRQ_CHANGE_VALID
+
 
+
    Indicates that the CONF_ENABLE_IRQ setting should be updated.
+
CONF_ENABLE_IRQ
+
 
+
    Specifies that IO interrupts should be enabled for this socket.
+
CONF_VCC_CHANGE_VALID
+
 
+
    Indicates that Vcc should be updated.
+
CONF_VPP1_CHANGE_VALID
+
 
+
    Indicates that Vpp1 should be updated.
+
CONF_VPP2_CHANGE_VALID
+
 
+
    Indicates that Vpp2 should be updated.
+
 
+
Currently, Vpp1 and Vpp2 must always have the same value. So, the two values must always be changed at the same time.
+
 
+
Return codes:
+
 
+
CS_BAD_HANDLE
+
 
+
    The client handle is invalid.
+
CS_NO_CARD
+
 
+
    The socket assigned to this client is currently vacant.
+
CS_CONFIGURATION_LOCKED
+
 
+
    This actually means that this socket has not been locked.
+
CS_BAD_VCC
+
 
+
    The requested Vcc voltage is not supported.
+
CS_BAD_VPP
+
 
+
    The requested Vpp1/Vpp2 voltage is not supported.
+
 
+
ReleaseConfiguration
+
 
+
    int CardServices(ReleaseConfiguration, client_handle_t client, config_req_t *req);
+
 
+
ReleaseConfiguration un-configures a socket previously set up by a call to RequestConfiguration. The req parameter should be the same one used to configure the socket.
+
 
+
Return codes:
+
 
+
CS_BAD_HANDLE
+
 
+
    The window handle is invalid, or the socket is not configured.
+
 
+
GetConfigurationInfo
+
 
+
    int CardServices(GetConfigurationInfo, client_handle_t client, config_info_t *config);
+
 
+
The config_info_t structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef struct config_info_t {
+
            u_char          Function;
+
            u_int          Attributes;
+
            u_int          Vcc, Vpp1, Vpp2;
+
            u_int          IntType;
+
            u_int          ConfigBase;
+
            u_char          Status, Pin, Copy, Option, ExtStatus;
+
            u_int          Present;
+
            u_int          AssignedIRQ;
+
            u_int          IRQAttributes;
+
            ioaddr_t        BasePort1;
+
            ioaddr_t        NumPorts1;
+
            u_int          Attributes1;
+
            ioaddr_t        BasePort2;
+
            ioaddr_t        NumPorts2;
+
            u_int          Attributes2;
+
            u_int          IOAddrLines;
+
    } config_info_t;
+
 
+
GetConfigurationInfo returns the current socket configuration as it was set up by RequestIO, RequestIRQ, and RequestConfiguration. Most fields will only be filled in if the socket is fully configured; the CONF_VALID_CLIENT flag in Attributes indicates this fact. For normal clients bound to a single card function, the Function field is ignored, and data for that client's assigned function is returned. For clients bound to BIND_FN_ALL, this field specifies which function's configuration data should be returned.
+
 
+
For CardBus cards, the ConfigBase field is set to the card's PCI vendor/device ID, and the Option field is set to the CardBus PCI bus number.
+
 
+
Return codes:
+
 
+
CS_BAD_HANDLE
+
 
+
    The window handle is invalid, or the socket is not configured.
+
CS_NO_CARD
+
 
+
    The socket assigned to this client is currently vacant.
+
CS_CONFIGURATION_LOCKED
+
 
+
    This actually means that the configuration has not been locked.
+
 
+
3.4 Card Information Structure (CIS) calls
+
 
+
The definition of the Card Information Structure (CIS) is the darkest chapter of the PC Card standard. All version 2 compliant cards should have a CIS, which describes the card and how it should be configured. The CIS is a linked list of ``tuples'' in the card's attribute memory space. Each tuple consists of an identification code, a length byte, and a series of data bytes. The layout of the data bytes for some tuple types is absurdly complicated, in an apparent effort to use every last bit.
+
 
+
The ValidateCIS call checks to see if a card has a reasonable CIS. The GetFirstTuple and GetNextTuple calls are used to step through CIS tuple lists. GetTupleData extracts data bytes from a tuple. And ParseTuple unpacks most tuple types into more easily used forms. Finally, the ReplaceCIS call allows a client to provide Card Services with a substitute for the CIS found on the card.
+
 
+
GetFirstTuple, GetNextTuple
+
 
+
    #include "cistpl.h"
+
 
+
    int CardServices(GetFirstTuple, client_handle_t client, tuple_t *tuple);
+
    int CardServices(GetNextTuple, client_handle_t client, tuple_t *tuple);
+
 
+
The tuple_t data structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef struct tuple_t {
+
            u_int          Attributes;
+
            cis_data_t      DesiredTuple;
+
            u_int          Flags;
+
            cisdata_t      TupleCode;
+
            u_int          TupleLink;
+
            cisdata_t      TupleOffset;
+
            cisdata_t      TupleDataMax;
+
            cisdata_t      TupleDataLen;
+
            cisdata_t      *TupleData;
+
    } tuple_t;
+
 
+
GetFirstTuple searches a card's CIS for the first tuple code matching DesiredTuple. The special code RETURN_FIRST_TUPLE will match the first tuple of any kind. If successful, TupleCode is set to the code of the first matching tuple found, and TupleLink is the address of this tuple in attribute memory.
+
 
+
GetNextTuple is like GetFirstTuple, except that given a tuple_t structure returned by a previous call to GetFirstTuple or GetNextTuple, it will return the next tuple matching DesiredTuple.
+
 
+
These functions will automatically traverse any link tuples found in the CIS. For multifunction cards having a CISTPL_LONGLINK_MFC tuple, these functions will automatically follow just the CIS chain specific to a client driver's assigned function. If a client was bound to BIND_FN_ALL, then all tuples will be returned.
+
 
+
The following flags can be specified in Attributes:
+
 
+
TUPLE_RETURN_LINK
+
 
+
    Indicates that link tuples (CISTPL_LONGLINK_A, CISTPL_LONGLINK_C, CISTPL_LONGLINK_MFC, CISTPL_NOLINK, CISTPL_LINKTARGET) should be returned. Normally these tuples are processed silently.
+
TUPLE_RETURN_COMMON
+
 
+
    Indicates that tuples in the ``common'' CIS section of a multifunction CIS should be returned. In the absence of this flag, normally, Card Services will only return tuples specific to the function bound to the client.
+
 
+
Return codes:
+
 
+
CS_BAD_HANDLE
+
 
+
    The client handle is invalid.
+
CS_OUT_OF_RESOURCE
+
 
+
    Card Services was unable to set up a memory window to map the card's CIS.
+
CS_NO_MORE_ITEMS
+
 
+
    There were no tuples matching DesiredTuple.
+
 
+
GetTupleData
+
 
+
    #include "cistpl.h"
+
 
+
    int CardServices(GetTupleData, client_handle_t client, tuple_t *tuple);
+
 
+
GetTupleData extracts a series of data bytes from the specified tuple, which must have been returned by a previous call to GetFirstTuple or GetNextTuple. A maximum of TupleDataMax bytes will be copied into the TupleData buffer, starting at an offset of TupleOffset bytes. The number of bytes copied is returned in TupleDataLen.
+
 
+
Return codes:
+
 
+
CS_BAD_HANDLE
+
 
+
    The client handle is invalid.
+
CS_OUT_OF_RESOURCE
+
 
+
    Card Services was unable to set up a memory window to map the card's CIS.
+
CS_NO_MORE_ITEMS
+
 
+
    The tuple does not contain any more data. TuppleOffset is greater than or equal to the length of the tuple.
+
 
+
ParseTuple
+
 
+
    #include "cistpl.h"
+
 
+
    int CardServices(ParseTuple, client_handle_t client, tuple_t *tuple, cisparse_t *parse);
+
 
+
The cisparse_t data structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef union cisparse_t {
+
            cistpl_device_t        device;
+
            cistpl_checksum_t      checksum;
+
            cistpl_longlink_t      longlink;
+
            cistpl_longlink_mfc_t  longlink_mfc;
+
            cistpl_vers_1_t        version_1;
+
            cistpl_altstr_t        altstr;
+
            cistpl_jedec_t          jedec;
+
            cistpl_manfid_t        manfid;
+
            cistpl_funcid_t        funcid;
+
            cistpl_config_t        config;
+
            cistpl_cftable_entry_t  cftable_entry;
+
            cistpl_device_geo_t    device_geo;
+
            cistpl_vers_2_t        version_2;
+
            cistpl_org_t            org;
+
            cistpl_format_t        format;
+
    } cisparse_t;
+
 
+
ParseTuple interprets tuple data returned by a previous call to GetTupleData. The structure returned depends on the type of the parsed tuple. See the cistpl.h file for these structure definitions; some of them are quite complex.
+
 
+
Return codes:
+
 
+
CS_BAD_TUPLE
+
 
+
    An error was encounted during parsing of this tuple. The tuple may be incomplete, or may be formatted incorrectly.
+
CS_UNSUPPORTED_FUNCTION
+
 
+
    ParseTuple cannot parse the specified tuple type.
+
 
+
ValidateCIS
+
 
+
    int CardServices(ValidateCIS, client_handle_t client, cisinfo_t *cisinfo);
+
 
+
The cisinfo_t structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef struct cisinfo_t {
+
            u_int          Chains;
+
    } cisinfo_t;
+
 
+
ValidateCIS attempts to verify that a card has a reasonable Card Information Structure. It returns the number of tuples found in Chains. If the CIS appears to be uninterpretable, Chains will be set to 0.
+
 
+
Return codes:
+
 
+
CS_BAD_HANDLE
+
 
+
    The client handle is invalid.
+
CS_OUT_OF_RESOURCE
+
 
+
    Card Services was unable to set up a memory window to map the card's CIS.
+
 
+
ReplaceCIS
+
 
+
    int CardServices(ReplaceCIS, client_handle_t client, cisdump_t *cisinfo);
+
 
+
The cisdump_t structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef struct cisdump_t {
+
            u_int          Length;
+
            cisdata_t      Data[CISTPL_MAX_CIS_SIZE];
+
    } cisinfo_t;
+
 
+
ReplaceCIS allows a client to pass Card Services a replacement for the CIS found on a card. Its intended application is for cards with incomplete or inaccurate CIS information. If a correct CIS can be deduced from other information available for the card, this allows that information to be provided to clients in a clean fashion. The alternative is to pollute client source code with fixes targeted for each card with a CIS error. The replacement CIS remains in effect until the card is ejected, and all tuple-related services will use the replacement instead of the card's actual CIS.
+
 
+
The Length field gives the number of bytes of CIS data in the Data array. The Data array can be considered to be just the even bytes of a card's attribute memory. It should contain all required features of a normal CIS, including an initial CISTPL_DEVICE tuple and a final CISTPL_END tuple. Long links (including CISTPL_LONGLINK_MFC) may be used: all target addresses are interpreted in the replacement CIS space. In general, a replacement CIS should also contain the same basic identification tuples (CISTPL_MANFID, CISTPL_VERS_1) as the original card.
+
 
+
This service was added in release 3.0.1.
+
 
+
Return codes:
+
 
+
CS_BAD_HANDLE
+
 
+
    The client handle is invalid.
+
CS_OUT_OF_RESOURCE
+
 
+
    Card Services was unable to allocate memory to hold the replacement CIS.
+
 
+
==== Memory window control ====
+
 
+
Each socket can have up to four active memory windows, mapping portions of card memory into the host system address space. A PC Card device can address at most 16MB of both common and attribute memory. Windows should typically be sized to a power of two. Depending on socket capabilities, they may need to be aligned on a boundary that is a multiple of the window size in both the host and card address spaces.
+
 
+
A memory window is initialized by a call to RequestWindow. Some window attributes can be modified using ModifyWindow. The segment of card memory mapped to the window can be modified using MapMemPage. And windows are released with ReleaseWindow. Unlike almost all other Card Services subfunctions, the memory window functions normally act on window_handle_t handles, rather than client_handle_t handles.
+
 
+
RequestWindow
+
 
+
    int CardServices(RequestWindow, client_handle_t *handle, win_req_t *req);
+
 
+
The win_req_t structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef struct win_req_t {
+
            u_int          Attributes;
+
            u_long          Base;
+
            u_int          Size;
+
            u_int          AccessSpeed;
+
    } win_req_t;
+
 
+
RequestWindow maps a window of card memory into system memory. On entry, the handle parameter should point to a valid client handle. On return, this will be replaced by a window_handle_t handle that should be used in subsequent calls to ModifyWindow, MapMemPage, and ReleaseWindow.
+
 
+
The following flags can be specified in Attributes:
+
 
+
WIN_MEMORY_TYPE
+
 
+
    This field can be either WIN_MEMORY_TYPE_CM for common memory, or WIN_MEMORY_TYPE_AM for attribute memory.
+
WIN_DATA_WIDTH
+
 
+
    Either WIN_DATA_WIDTH_16 for 16-bit accesses, or WIN_DATA_WIDTH_8 for 8-bit access.
+
WIN_ENABLE
+
 
+
    If this is set, the window is turned on.
+
WIN_USE_WAIT
+
 
+
    Specifies that the controller should observe the card's MWAIT signal.
+
WIN_MAP_BELOW_1MB
+
 
+
    Requests that the window be mapped below the 1MB address boundary. This may not be possible on some platforms.
+
WIN_STRICT_ALIGN
+
 
+
    Requests that the window base be aligned to a multiple of the window size. Added in release 3.1.2.
+
 
+
Base specifies the base physical address of the window in system memory. If zero, Card Services will set Base to the first available window address. Size specifies the window size in bytes. If zero, Card Services will set Size to the smallest window size supported by the host controller. AccessSpeed specifies the memory access speed, in nanoseconds.
+
 
+
Return codes:
+
 
+
CS_BAD_HANDLE
+
 
+
    The client handle is invalid.
+
CS_NO_CARD
+
 
+
    The socket assigned to this client is currently vacant.
+
CS_BAD_ATTRIBUTE
+
 
+
    An unsupported window attribute was requested.
+
CS_OUT_OF_RESOURCE
+
 
+
    The maximum number of memory windows for this socket are already being used.
+
CS_IN_USE
+
 
+
    RequestWindow was unable to find a free window of system memory.
+
CS_BAD_SIZE
+
 
+
    ,
+
CS_BAD_BASE
+
 
+
    Either Base or Size does not satisfy the alignment rules for this socket.
+
 
+
ModifyWindow
+
 
+
    int CardServices(ModifyWindow, window_handle_t handle, modwin_t *mod);
+
 
+
The modwin_t structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef struct modwin_t {
+
            u_int          Attributes;
+
            u_int          AccessSpeed;
+
    } modwin_t;
+
 
+
ModifyWindow modifies the attributes of a window handle returned by a previous call to RequestWindow. The following attributes can be changed:
+
 
+
WIN_MEMORY_TYPE
+
 
+
    This field can be either WIN_MEMORY_TYPE_CM for common memory, or WIN_MEMORY_TYPE_AM for attribute memory.
+
WIN_DATA_WIDTH
+
 
+
    Either WIN_DATA_WIDTH_16 for 16-bit accesses, or WIN_DATA_WIDTH_8 for 8-bit access.
+
WIN_ENABLE
+
 
+
    If this is set, the window is turned on.
+
 
+
AccessSpeed gives the new memory access speed, in nanoseconds.
+
 
+
Return codes:
+
 
+
CS_BAD_HANDLE
+
 
+
    The window handle is invalid.
+
 
+
ReleaseWindow
+
 
+
    int CardServices(ReleaseWindow, window_handle_t handle);
+
 
+
ReleaseWindow releases a memory window previously allocated with RequestWindow.
+
 
+
Return codes:
+
 
+
CS_BAD_HANDLE
+
 
+
    The window handle is invalid.
+
 
+
GetFirstWindow, GetNextWindow
+
 
+
    int CardServices(GetFirstWindow, client_handle_t *client, win_req_t *req);
+
    int CardServices(GetNextWindow, window_handle_t *handle, win_req_t *req);
+
 
+
These calls sequentially retrieve window configuration information for all of a socket's memory windows. GetFirstWindow replaces the client window handle with a memory window handle, which will in turn be updated by calls to GetNextWindow.
+
 
+
These services were added in release 3.1.0.
+
 
+
Return codes:
+
 
+
CS_BAD_HANDLE
+
 
+
    The client handle is invalid.
+
CS_NO_MORE_ITEMS
+
 
+
    No more windows ara configured for this socket.
+
 
+
MapMemPage, GetMemPage
+
 
+
    int CardServices(MapMemPage, window_handle_t handle, memreq_t *req);
+
    int CardServices(GetMemPage, window_handle_t handle, memreq_t *req);
+
 
+
The memreq_t structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef struct memreq_t {
+
            u_int          CardOffset;
+
            page_t          Page;
+
    } memreq_t;
+
 
+
MapMemPage sets the address of card memory that is mapped to the base of a memory window to CardOffset. The window should have been created by a call to RequestWindow. The Page parameter is not implemented in this version and should be set to 0. In turn GetMemPage retrieves the current card address mapping for a memory window.
+
 
+
The GetMemPage service was added in release 3.1.0.
+
 
+
Return codes:
+
 
+
CS_BAD_HANDLE
+
 
+
    The window handle is invalid.
+
CS_BAD_PAGE
+
 
+
    The Page value was non-zero.
+
CS_BAD_OFFSET
+
 
+
    The requested CardOffset was out of range or did not have proper alignment.
+
 
+
==== Bulk Memory Services ====
+
 
+
Bulk memory services provide a higher level interface for accessing memory regions than that provided by the memory window services. A client using bulk memory calls does not need to know anything about the underlying memory organization or access methods. The device-specific code is packaged into a special Card Services client called a Memory Technology Driver.
+
 
+
RegisterMTD
+
 
+
    int CardServices(RegisterMTD, client_handle_t handle, mtd_reg_t *reg);
+
 
+
The mtd_reg_t data structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef union mtd_reg_t {
+
            u_int          Attributes;
+
            u_int          Offset;
+
            u_long          MediaID;
+
    } mtd_reg_t;
+
 
+
RegisterMTD informs Card Services that this client MTD will handle requests for a specified memory region. The Offset field specifies the starting address of the memory region. The following fields are defined in Attributes:
+
 
+
REGION_TYPE
+
 
+
    Either REGION_TYPE_CM for common memory, or REGION_TYPE_AM for attribute memory.
+
 
+
The MediaID field is recorded by Card Services, and will be passed to the MTD as part of any request that references this memory region.
+
 
+
Once an MTD is bound to a memory region by a call to RegisterMTD, it will remain bound until the MTD calls DeregisterClient.
+
 
+
Return codes:
+
 
+
CS_BAD_HANDLE
+
 
+
    The client handle is invalid.
+
CS_BAD_OFFSET
+
 
+
    Either the offset does not match a valid memory region for this card, or another MTD has already registered for this region.
+
 
+
GetFirstRegion, GetNextRegion
+
 
+
    int CardServices(GetFirstRegion, client_handle_t handle, region_info_t *region);
+
    int CardServices(GetNextRegion, client_handle_t handle, region_info_t *region);
+
 
+
The region_info_t data structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef union region_info_t {
+
            u_int          Attributes;
+
            u_int          CardOffset;
+
            u_int          RegionSize;
+
            u_int          AccessSpeed;
+
            u_int          BlockSize;
+
            u_int          PartMultiple;
+
            u_char          JedecMfr, JedecInfo;
+
            memory_handle_t next;
+
    } region_info_t;
+
 
+
GetFirstRegion and GetNextRegion summarize the information in a card's CISTPL_DEVICE, CISTPL_JEDEC, and CISTPL_DEVICE_GEO tuples. CardOffset gives the starting address of a region. RegionSize gives the length of the region in bytes. AccessSpeed gives the device's cycle time in nanoseconds. BlockSize gives the erase block size in bytes, and PartMultiple gives the minimum granularity of partitions on this device, in units of BlockSize. JedecMfr and JedecInfo give the JEDEC identification bytes for this region.
+
 
+
The following fields are defined in Attributes:
+
 
+
REGION_TYPE
+
 
+
    Either REGION_TYPE_CM for common memory, or REGION_TYPE_AM for attribute memory.
+
 
+
When these calls are made by an MTD client, only regions that have been bound to this client through calls to BindMTD will be returned.
+
 
+
Return codes:
+
 
+
CS_BAD_HANDLE
+
 
+
    The client handle is invalid.
+
CS_NO_MORE_ITEMS
+
 
+
    No more memory regions are defined.
+
 
+
OpenMemory
+
 
+
    int CardServices(OpenMemory, client_handle_t *handle, open_mem_t *req);
+
 
+
The open_mem_t structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef struct open_mem_t {
+
            u_int          Attributes;
+
            u_int          Offset;
+
    } open_mem_t;
+
 
+
OpenMemory is used to obtain a handle for accessing a memory region via the other bulk memory services. The Offset field specifies the base address of the region to be accessed. If successful, the client handle argument is replaced by the new memory handle.
+
 
+
The following fields are defined in Attributes:
+
 
+
MEMORY_TYPE
+
 
+
    Either MEMORY_TYPE_CM for common memory, or MEMORY_TYPE_AM for attribute memory.
+
MEMORY_EXCLUSIVE
+
 
+
    Specifies that this client should have exclusive access to this memory region.
+
 
+
Return codes:
+
 
+
CS_BAD_HANDLE
+
 
+
    The window handle is invalid.
+
CS_BAD_OFFSET
+
 
+
    Either the offset does not specify a valid region, or the region does not have an associated MTD to service bulk memory requests.
+
 
+
CloseMemory
+
 
+
    int CardServices(CloseMemory, memory_handle_t handle);
+
 
+
CloseMemory releases a memory handle returned by a previous call to OpenMemory. A client should release all memory handles before calling DeregisterClient.
+
 
+
Return codes:
+
 
+
CS_BAD_HANDLE
+
 
+
    The memory handle is invalid.
+
 
+
ReadMemory, WriteMemory
+
 
+
    int CardServices(ReadMemory, memory_handle_t handle mem_op_t *req, caddr_t buf);
+
    int CardServices(WriteMemory, memory_handle_t handle, mem_op_t *req, caddr_t buf);
+
 
+
The mem_io_t structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef struct mem_op_t {
+
            u_int          Attributes;
+
            u_int          Offset;
+
            u_int          Count;
+
    } mem_op_t;
+
 
+
ReadMemory and WriteMemory read from and write to a card memory area defined by the specified memory handle, returned by a previous call to OpenMemory. The Offset field gives the offset of the operation from the start of the card memory region. The Count field gives the number of bytes to be transferred. The buf field points to a host memory buffer to be the destination for a ReadMemory operation, or the source for a WriteMemory operation.
+
 
+
The following fields are defined in Attributes:
+
 
+
MEM_OP_BUFFER
+
 
+
    Either MEM_OP_BUFFER_USER if the host buffer is in a user memory segment, or MEM_OP_BUFFER_KERNEL if the host buffer is in kernel memory.
+
MEM_OP_DISABLE_ERASE
+
 
+
    Specifies that a card area should not be erased before it is written.
+
MEM_OP_VERIFY
+
 
+
    Specifies verification of write operations.
+
 
+
Return codes:
+
 
+
CS_BAD_HANDLE
+
 
+
    The window handle is invalid.
+
CS_BAD_OFFSET
+
 
+
    The specified card offset is beyond the end of the memory region.
+
CS_BAD_SIZE
+
 
+
    The specified transfer size extends past the end of the memory region.
+
 
+
RegisterEraseQueue
+
 
+
    int CardServices(RegisterEraseQueue, client_handle_t *handle, eraseq_hdr_t *header);
+
 
+
The eraseq_hdr_t structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef struct erase_queue_header_t {
+
            int            QueueEntryCount;
+
            eraseq_entry_t  *QueueEntryArray;
+
    } eraseq_hdr_t;
+
 
+
This call registers a queue of erase requests with Card Services. An eraseq_handle_t handle will be returned in *handle. When this client calls CheckEraseQueue, Card Services will scan the queue and begin asynchronous processing of any new requests.
+
 
+
The eraseq_entry_t structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef struct eraseq_entry_t {
+
            memory_handle_t Handle;
+
            u_char          State;
+
            u_int          Size;
+
            u_int          Offset;
+
            void            *Optional;
+
    } eraseq_entry_t;
+
 
+
In an erase queue entry, the Header field should be a memory handle returned by a previous call to OpenMemory. The State field indicates the state of the erase request. The following values are defined:
+
 
+
ERASE_QUEUED
+
 
+
    Set by the client to indicate that this is a new request.
+
ERASE_IDLE
+
 
+
    Set by the client to indicate that this entry is not active.
+
ERASE_PASSED
+
 
+
    Set by the MTD to indicate successful completion.
+
ERASE_FAILED
+
 
+
    Set by the MTD to indicate that the erase failed.
+
ERASE_MEDIA_WRPROT
+
 
+
    Indicates that the region is write protected.
+
ERASE_NOT_ERASABLE
+
 
+
    Indicates that this region does not support erase operations.
+
ERASE_BAD_OFFSET
+
 
+
    Indicates that the erase does not start on an erase block boundary.
+
ERASE_BAD_SIZE
+
 
+
    Indicates that the requested erase size is not a multiple of the erase block size.
+
ERASE_BAD_SOCKET
+
 
+
    Set by the MTD to indicate that there is no card present.
+
 
+
Additionally, the macro ERASE_IN_PROGRESS() will return a true condition for values of State that indicate an erase is being processed.
+
 
+
The Size field gives the size of the erase request in bytes. The Offset field gives the offset from the start of the region. The size and offset should be aligned to erase block boundaries. The Optional field is not used by Card Services and may be used by the client driver.
+
 
+
Return codes:
+
 
+
CS_BAD_HANDLE
+
 
+
    The client handle is invalid.
+
 
+
DeregisterEraseQueue
+
 
+
    int CardServices(DeregisterEraseQueue, eraseq_handle_t handle);
+
 
+
DeregisterEraseQueue frees a queue previously registered by a call to RegisterEraseQueue. If there are any pending requests in the specified queue, the call will fail.
+
 
+
Return codes:
+
 
+
CS_BAD_HANDLE
+
 
+
    The erase queue handle is invalid.
+
CS_BUSY
+
 
+
    The erase queue has erase requests pending.
+
 
+
CheckEraseQueue
+
 
+
    int CardServices(CheckEraseQueue, eraseq_handle_t handle);
+
 
+
This call notifies Card Services that there are new erase requests in a queue previously registered with RegisterEraseQueue.
+
 
+
Typically, a client will initially assign each erase queue entry the state value ERASE_IDLE. When new requests are added to the queue, the client will set their states to ERASE_QUEUED, and call CheckEraseQueue. When the client is notified of an erase completion event, it will check the state field to determine whether the request was successful.
+
 
+
Return codes:
+
 
+
CS_BAD_HANDLE
+
 
+
    The erase queue handle is invalid.
+
 
+
3.7 Miscellaneous calls
+
GetCardServicesInfo
+
 
+
    int CardServices(GetCardServicesInfo, servinfo_t *info);
+
 
+
The servinfo_t structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef struct servinfo_t {
+
            char            Signature[2];
+
            u_int          Count;
+
            u_int          Revision;
+
            u_int          CSLevel;
+
            char            *VendorString;
+
    } servinfo_t;
+
 
+
GetCardServicesInfo returns revision information about this version of Card Services. Signature is set to ``CS''. Count is set to the number of sockets currently configured. Revision is set to the revision level of the Card Services package, and CSLevel is set to the level of compliance with the PC Card standard. These are encoded as BCD numbers. VendorString is set to point to an RCS identification string.
+
 
+
This call always succeeds.
+
 
+
AccessConfigurationRegister
+
 
+
    #include "cisreg.h"
+
 
+
    int CardServices(AccessConfigurationRegister, client_handle_t handle, conf_reg_t *reg);
+
 
+
The conf_reg_t structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef struct conf_reg_t {
+
            u_char          Function;
+
            u_int          Action;
+
            off_t          Offset;
+
            u_int          Value;
+
    } conf_reg_t;
+
 
+
For normal clients bound to a specific card function, the Function field is ignored. For clients bound to BIND_FN_ALL, this field specifies which function's configuration registers should be accessed.
+
 
+
The Action parameter can be one of the following:
+
 
+
CS_READ
+
 
+
    Read the specified configuration register and return Value.
+
CS_WRITE
+
 
+
    Write Value to the specified configuration register.
+
 
+
AccessConfigurationRegister either reads or writes the one-byte CIS configuration register at offset Offset from the start of the config register area. It can only be used for a socket that has been configured with RequestConfiguration.
+
 
+
The following values for Offset are defined in cistpl.h:
+
 
+
CISREG_COR
+
 
+
    The Configuration Option Register.
+
CISREG_CCSR
+
 
+
    The Card Configuration and Status Register.
+
CISREG_PRR
+
 
+
    The Pin Replacement Register.
+
CISREG_SCR
+
 
+
    The Socket and Copy Register.
+
CISREG_ESR
+
 
+
    The Extended Status Register.
+
CISREG_IOBASE_0..CISREG_IOBASE_3
+
 
+
    The I/O Base Registers.
+
CISREG_IOSIZE
+
 
+
    The I/O Size Register.
+
 
+
Return codes:
+
 
+
CS_BAD_HANDLE
+
 
+
    The client handle is invalid.
+
CS_BAD_ARGS
+
 
+
    The specified Action is not supported.
+
CS_CONFIGURATION_LOCKED
+
 
+
    This actually means that the configuration has not been locked.
+
CS_OUT_OF_RESOURCE
+
 
+
    Card Services was unable to allocate a memory window to access the card's configuration registers.
+
 
+
AdjustResourceInfo
+
 
+
    int CardServices(AdjustResourceInfo, client_handle_t handle, adjust_t *adj);
+
 
+
The adjust_t structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef struct adjust_t {
+
            u_int          Action;
+
            u_int          Resource;
+
            u_int          Attributes;
+
            union {
+
                    struct memory {
+
                            u_long          Base;
+
                            u_long          Size;
+
                    } memory;
+
                    struct io {
+
                            ioaddr_t        BasePort;
+
                            ioaddr_t        NumPorts;
+
                            u_int          IOAddrLines;
+
                    } io;
+
                    struct irq {
+
                            u_int          IRQ;
+
                    } irq;
+
            } resource;
+
    } adjust_t;
+
 
+
AdjustResourceInfo is used to tell Card Services what resources may or may not be allocated by PC Card devices. The normal Linux resource management systems (the *_region calls for IO ports, interrupt allocation) are respected by Card Services, but this call gives the user another level of control.
+
 
+
The Action parameter can have the following values:
+
 
+
ADD_MANAGED_RESOURCE
+
 
+
    Place the specified resource under Card Services control, so that it may be allocated by PC Card devices.
+
REMOVE_MANAGED_RESOURCE
+
 
+
    Remove the specified resource from Card Services control.
+
 
+
At initialization time, Card Services assumes that it can use all available interrupts, but IO ports and memory regions must be explicitly enabled with ADD_MANAGED_RESOURCE.
+
 
+
The Resource parameter can have the following values:
+
 
+
RES_MEMORY_RANGE
+
 
+
    Specifies a memory range resource, described by adj->resource.memory.
+
RES_IO_RANGE
+
 
+
    Specifies an IO port resource, described by adj->resource.io.
+
RES_IRQ
+
 
+
    Specifies an interrupt resource, described by adj->resource.irq.
+
 
+
The following flags may be specified in Attributes:
+
 
+
RES_RESERVED
+
 
+
    Indicates that the resource should be reserved for PC Card devices that specifically request it. The resource will not be allocated for a device that asks Card Services for any available location. This is not implemented yet.
+
 
+
Return codes:
+
 
+
CS_UNSUPPORTED_FUNCTION
+
 
+
    The specified Action or Resource is not supported.
+
CS_BAD_BASE
+
 
+
    The specified IO address is out of range.
+
CS_BAD_SIZE
+
 
+
    The specified memory or IO window size is out of range.
+
CS_IN_USE
+
 
+
    The specified interrupt is currently allocated by a Card Services client.
+
 
+
ReportError
+
 
+
    int CardServices(ReportError, client_handle_t handle, error_info_t *err);
+
 
+
The error_info_t structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef struct error_info_t {
+
            int            func;
+
            int            retcode;
+
    } error_info_t;
+
 
+
ReportError generates a kernel error message given a Card Services function code and its return code. If the client handle is valid, then the error will be prefixed with the client driver's name. For example:
+
 
+
    error_info_t err = { RequestIO, CS_BAD_HANDLE };
+
    CardServices(ReportError, handle, &err);
+
 
+
could generate the following message:
+
 
+
    serial_cs: RequestIO: Bad handle
+
 
+
This call always succeeds.
+
 
+
 
+
=== Card Information Structure Definitions ===
+
 
+
==== CIS Tuple Definitions ====
+
 
+
The Card Services ParseTuple function interprets raw CIS tuple data from a call to GetTupleData and returns the tuple contents in a form dependant on the tuple type. This section describes the parsed tuple contents.
+
 
+
    #include "cistpl.h"
+
 
+
CISTPL_CHECKSUM
+
 
+
The cistpl_checksum_t structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef struct cistpl_checksum_t {
+
            u_short        addr;
+
            u_short        len;
+
            u_char          sum;
+
    } cistpl_checksum_t;
+
 
+
CISTPL_LONGLINK_A, CISTPL_LONGLINK_C, CISTPL_LINKTARGET,CISTPL_NOLINK
+
 
+
The cistpl_longlink_t structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef struct cistpl_longlink_t {
+
            u_int          addr;
+
    } cistpl_longlink_t;
+
 
+
These tuples are pointers to additional chains of CIS tuples, either in attribute or common memory. Each CIS tuple chain can have at most one long link. CISTPL_LONGLINK_A tuples point to attribute memory, and CISTPL_LONGLINK_C tuples point to common memory. The standard CIS chain starting at address 0 in attribute memory has an implied long link to address 0 in common memory. A CISTPL_NOLINK tuple can be used to cancel this default link.
+
 
+
The first tuple of a chain pointed to by a long link must be a CISTPL_LINKTARGET. The CS tuple handling code will automatically follow long links and verify link targets; these tuples are normally invisible unless the TUPLE_RETURN_LINK attribute is specified in GetNextTuple.
+
 
+
CISTPL_LONGLINK_MFC
+
 
+
The cistpl_longlink_mfc_t structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef struct cistpl_longlink_mfc_t {
+
            int    nfn;
+
            struct {
+
                    u_char  space;
+
                    u_int  addr;
+
            } fn[CISTPL_MAX_FUNCTIONS;
+
    } cistpl_longlink_mfc_t;
+
 
+
This tuple identifies a multifunction card, and specifies long link pointers to CIS chains specific for each function. The space field is either CISTPL_MFC_ATTR or CISTPL_MFC_COMMON for attribute or common memory space.
+
 
+
CISTPL_DEVICE, CISTPL_DEVICE_A
+
 
+
The cistpl_device_t structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef struct cistpl_device_t {
+
            int            ndev;
+
            struct {
+
                    u_char          type;
+
                    u_char          wp;
+
                    u_int          speed;
+
                    u_int          size;
+
            } dev[CISTPL_MAX_DEVICES];
+
    } cistpl_device_t;
+
 
+
The CISTPL_DEVICE tuple describes address regions in a card's common memory. The CISTPL_DEVICE_A tuple describes regions in attribute memory. The type flag indicates the type of memory device for this region. The wp flag indicates if this region is write protected. The speed field is in nanoseconds, and size is in bytes. Address regions are assumed to be ordered consecutively starting with address 0. The following device types are defined:
+
 
+
CISTPL_DTYPE_NULL
+
 
+
    Specifies that there is no device, or a ``hole'' in the card address space.
+
CISTPL_DTYPE_ROM
+
 
+
    Masked ROM
+
CISTPL_DTYPE_OTPROM
+
 
+
    One-type programmable ROM.
+
CISTPL_DTYPE_EPROM
+
 
+
    UV erasable PROM.
+
CISTPL_DTYPE_EEPROM
+
 
+
    Electrically erasable PROM.
+
CISTPL_DTYPE_FLASH
+
 
+
    Flash EPROM.
+
CISTPL_DTYPE_SRAM
+
 
+
    Static or non-volatile RAM.
+
CISTPL_DTYPE_DRAM
+
 
+
    Dynamic or volatile RAM.
+
CISTPL_DTYPE_FUNCSPEC
+
 
+
    Specifies a function-specific device, such as a memory-mapped IO device or buffer, as opposed to general purpose storage.
+
CISTPL_DTYPE_EXTEND
+
 
+
    Specifies an extended device type. This type is reserved for future use.
+
 
+
CISTPL_VERS_1
+
 
+
The cistpl_vers_1_t structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef struct cistpl_vers_1_t {
+
            u_char          major;
+
            u_char          minor;
+
            int            ns;
+
            int            ofs[CISTPL_VERS_1_MAX_PROD_STRINGS];
+
            char            str[254];
+
    } cistpl_vers_1_t;
+
 
+
The ns field specifies the number of product information strings in the tuple. The string data is contained in the str array. Each string is null terminated, and ofs gives the offset to the start of each string.
+
 
+
CISTPL_ALTSTR
+
 
+
The cistpl_altstr_t structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef struct cistpl_altstr_t {
+
            int            ns;
+
            int            ofs[CISTPL_ALTSTR_MAX_STRINGS];
+
            char            str[254];
+
    } cistpl_altstr_t;
+
 
+
The ns field specifies the number of alternate language strings in the tuple. The string data is contained in the str array. Each string is null terminated, and ofs gives the offset to the start of each string.
+
 
+
CISTPL_JEDEC_C, CISTPL_JEDEC_A
+
 
+
The cistpl_jedec_t structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef struct cistpl_jedec_t {
+
            int            nid;
+
            struct {
+
                    u_char  mfr;
+
                    u_char  info;
+
            } id[CISTPL_MAX_DEVICES];
+
    } cistpl_jedec_t;
+
 
+
JEDEC identifiers describe the specific device type used to implement a region of card memory. The nid field specifies the number of JEDEC identifiers in the tuple. There should be a one-to-one correspondence between JEDEC identifiers and device descriptions in the corresponding CISTPL_DEVICE tuple.
+
 
+
CISTPL_CONFIG, CISTPL_CONFIG_CB
+
 
+
The cistpl_config_t structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef struct cistpl_config_t {
+
            u_char          last_idx;
+
            u_int          base;
+
            u_int          rmask[4];
+
            u_char          subtuples;
+
    } cistpl_config_t;
+
 
+
The last_idx field gives the index of the highest numbered configuration table entry. The base field gives the offset of a card's configuration registers in attribute memory. The rmask array is a series of bit masks indicating which configuration registers are present. Bit 0 of rmask[0] is for the COR, bit 1 is for the CCSR, and so on. The subtuples field gives the number of bytes of subtuples following the normal tuple contents.
+
 
+
For CISTPL_CONFIG_CB, rmask is undefined, and base points to the CardBus status registers.
+
 
+
CISTPL_BAR
+
 
+
The cistpl_bar_t structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef struct cistpl_bar_t {
+
            u_char          attr;
+
            u_int          size;
+
    } cistpl_long_t;
+
 
+
A CISTPL_BAR tuple describes the characteristics of an address space region pointed to by a PCI base address register, for CardBus cards.
+
 
+
The following bit fields are defined in attr:
+
 
+
CISTPL_BAR_SPACE
+
 
+
    Identifies the base address register, from 1 to 6. A value of 7 describes the card's Extension ROM space.
+
CISTPL_BAR_SPACE_IO
+
 
+
    If set, this address register maps IO space (as opposed to memory space).
+
CISTPL_BAR_PREFETCH
+
 
+
    If set, this region can be prefetched. controller.
+
CISTPL_BAR_CACHEABLE
+
 
+
    If set, this region is cacheable as well as prefetchable.
+
CISTPL_BAR_1MEG_MAP
+
 
+
    If set, this region should only be mapped into the first 1MB of the host's physical address space.
+
 
+
CISTPL_CFTABLE_ENTRY
+
 
+
The cistpl_cftable_entry_t structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef struct cistpl_cftable_entry_t {
+
            u_char          index;
+
            u_char          flags;
+
            u_char          interface;
+
            cistpl_power_t  vcc, vpp1, vpp2;
+
            cistpl_timing_t timing;
+
            cistpl_io_t    io;
+
            cistpl_irq_t    irq;
+
            cistpl_mem_t    mem;
+
            u_char          subtuples;
+
    } cistpl_cftable_entry_t;
+
 
+
A CISTPL_CFTABLE_ENTRY structure describes a complete operating mode for a card. Many sections are optional. The index field gives the configuration index for this operating mode; writing this value to the card's Configuration Option Register selects this mode. The following fields are defined in flags:
+
 
+
CISTPL_CFTABLE_DEFAULT
+
 
+
    Specifies that this is the default configuration table entry.
+
CISTPL_CFTABLE_BVDS
+
 
+
    Specifies that this configuration implements the BVD1 and BVD2 signals in the Pin Replacement Register.
+
CISTPL_CFTABLE_WP
+
 
+
    Specifies that this configuration implements the write protect signal in the Pin Replacement Register.
+
CISTPL_CFTABLE_RDYBSY
+
 
+
    Specifies that this configuration implements the Ready/Busy signal in the Pin Replacement Register.
+
CISTPL_CFTABLE_MWAIT
+
 
+
    Specifies that the WAIT signal should be observed during memory access cycles.
+
CISTPL_CFTABLE_AUDIO
+
 
+
    Specifies that this configuration generates an audio signal that can be routed to the host system speaker.
+
CISTPL_CFTABLE_READONLY
+
 
+
    Specifies that the card has a memory region that is read-only in this configuration.
+
CISTPL_CFTABLE_PWRDOWN
+
 
+
    Specifies that this configuration supports a power down mode, via the Card Configuration and Status Register.
+
 
+
The cistpl_power_t structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef struct cistpl_power_t {
+
            u_char          present;
+
            u_char          flags;
+
            u_int          param[7];
+
    } cistpl_power_t;
+
 
+
The present field is bit mapped and indicates which parameters are present for this power signal. The following indices are defined:
+
 
+
CISTPL_POWER_VNOM
+
 
+
    The nominal supply voltage.
+
CISTPL_POWER_VMIN
+
 
+
    The minimum supply voltage.
+
CISTPL_POWER_VMAX
+
 
+
    The maximum supply voltage.
+
CISTPL_POWER_ISTATIC
+
 
+
    The continuous supply current required.
+
CISTPL_POWER_IAVG
+
 
+
    The maximum current averaged over one second.
+
CISTPL_POWER_IPEAK
+
 
+
    The maximum current averaged over 10 ms.
+
CISTPL_POWER_IDOWN
+
 
+
    The current required in power down mode.
+
 
+
Voltages are given in units of 10 microvolts. Currents are given in units of 100 nanoamperes.
+
 
+
The cistpl_timing_t structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef cistpl_timing_t {
+
            u_int          wait, waitscale;
+
            u_int          ready, rdyscale;
+
            u_int          reserved, rsvscale;
+
    } cistpl_timing_t;
+
 
+
Each time consists of a base time in nanoseconds, and a scale multiplier. Unspecified times have values of 0.
+
 
+
The cistpl_io_t structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef struct cistpl_io_t {
+
            u_char          flags;
+
            int            nwin;
+
            struct {
+
                    u_int          base;
+
                    u_int          len;
+
            } win[CISTPL_IO_MAX_WIN;
+
    } cistpl_io_t;
+
 
+
The number of IO windows is given by nwin. Each window is described by a base address, base, and a length in bytes, len. The following bit fields are defined in flags:
+
 
+
CISTPL_IO_LINES_MASK
+
 
+
    The number of IO lines decoded by this card.
+
CISTPL_IO_8BIT
+
 
+
    Indicates that the card supports split 8-bit accesses to 16-bit IO registers.
+
CISTPL_IO_16BIT
+
 
+
    Indicates that the card supports full 16-bit accesses to IO registers.
+
 
+
The cistpl_irq_t structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef struct cistpl_irq_t {
+
            u_int          IRQInfo1;
+
            u_int          IRQInfo2;
+
    } cistpl_irq_t;
+
 
+
The following bit fields are defined in IRQInfo1:
+
 
+
IRQ_MASK
+
 
+
    A specific interrupt number that this card should use.
+
IRQ_NMI_ID, IRQ_IOCK_ID, IRQ_BERR_ID, IRQ_VEND_ID
+
 
+
    When IRQ_INFO2_VALID is set, these indicate if a corresponding special interrupt signal may be assigned to this card. The four flags are for the non-maskable, IO check, bus error, and vendor specific interrupts.
+
IRQ_INFO2_VALID
+
 
+
    Indicates that IRQInfo2 contains a valid bit mask of allowed interrupt request numbers.
+
IRQ_LEVEL_ID
+
 
+
    Indicates that the card supports level mode interrupts.
+
IRQ_PULSE_ID
+
 
+
    Indicates that the card supports pulse mode interrupts.
+
IRQ_SHARE_ID
+
 
+
    Indicates that the card supports sharing interrupts.
+
 
+
If IRQInfo1 is 0, then no interrupt information is available.
+
 
+
The cistpl_mem_t structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef struct cistpl_mem_t {
+
            u_char          nwin;
+
            struct {
+
                    u_int          len;
+
                    u_int          card_addr;
+
                    u_int          host_addr;
+
            } win[CISTPL_MEM_MAX_WIN;
+
    } cistpl_mem_t;
+
 
+
The number of memory windows is given by nwin. Each window is described by an address in the card memory space, card_addr, an address in the host memory space, host_addr, and a length in bytes, len. If the host address is 0, the position of the window is arbitrary.
+
 
+
CISTPL_CFTABLE_ENTRY_CB
+
 
+
The cistpl_cftable_entry_cb_t structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef struct cistpl_cftable_entry_cb_t {
+
            u_char          index;
+
            u_char          flags;
+
            cistpl_power_t  vcc, vpp1, vpp2;
+
            u_char          io;
+
            cistpl_irq_t    irq;
+
            u_char          mem;
+
            u_char          subtuples;
+
    } cistpl_cftable_entry_cb_t;
+
 
+
A CISTPL_CFTABLE_ENTRY_CB structure describes a complete operating mode for a CardBus card. Many fields are identical to corresponding fields in CISTPL_CFTABLE_ENTRY.
+
 
+
The io and mem fields specify which base address registers need to be initialized for this configuration. Bits 1 through 6 correspond to the six base address registers, and bit 7 indicates the expansion ROM base register.
+
 
+
CISTPL_MANFID
+
 
+
The cistpl_manfid_t structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef struct cistpl_manfid_t {
+
            u_short        manf;
+
            u_short        card;
+
    } cistpl_manfid_t;
+
 
+
The manf field identifies the card manufacturer. The card field is chosen by the vendor and should identify the card type and model.
+
 
+
CISTPL_FUNCID
+
 
+
The cistpl_funcid_t structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef struct cistpl_funcid_t {
+
            u_char          func;
+
            u_char          sysinit;
+
    } cistpl_funcid_t;
+
 
+
The func field identifies the card function. The sysinit field contains several bit-mapped flags describing how the card should be configured at boot time.
+
 
+
The following functions are defined:
+
 
+
CISTPL_FUNCID_MULTI
+
 
+
    A multi-function card.
+
CISTPL_FUNCID_MEMORY
+
 
+
    A simple memory device.
+
CISTPL_FUNCID_SERIAL
+
 
+
    A serial port or modem device.
+
CISTPL_FUNCID_PARALLEL
+
 
+
    A parallel port device.
+
CISTPL_FUNCID_FIXED
+
 
+
    A fixed disk device.
+
CISTPL_FUNCID_VIDEO
+
 
+
    A video interface.
+
CISTPL_FUNCID_NETWORK
+
 
+
    A network adapter.
+
CISTPL_FUNCID_AIMS
+
 
+
    An auto-incrementing mass storage device.
+
 
+
The following flags are defined in sysinit:
+
 
+
CISTPL_SYSINIT_POST
+
 
+
    Indicates that the system should attempt to configure this card during its power-on initialization.
+
CISTPL_SYSINIT_ROM
+
 
+
    Indicates that the card contains a system expansion ROM that should be configured at boot time.
+
 
+
CISTPL_DEVICE_GEO
+
 
+
The cistpl_device_geo_t structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef struct cistpl_device_geo_t {
+
            int            ngeo;
+
            struct {
+
                    u_char          buswidth;
+
                    u_int          erase_block;
+
                    u_int          read_block;
+
                    u_int          write_block;
+
                    u_int          partition;
+
                    u_int          interleave;
+
            } geo[CISTPL_MAX_DEVICES];
+
    } cistpl_device_geo_t;
+
 
+
The erase_block, read_block, and write_block sizes are in units of buswidth bytes times interleave. The partition size is in units of erase_block.
+
 
+
CISTPL_VERS_2
+
 
+
The cistpl_vers_2_t structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef struct cistpl_vers_2_t {
+
            u_char          vers;
+
            u_char          comply;
+
            u_short        dindex;
+
            u_char          vspec8, vspec9;
+
            u_char          nhdr;
+
            int            vendor, info;
+
            char            str[244];
+
    } cistpl_vers_2_t;
+
 
+
The vers field should always be 0. The comply field indicates the degree of standard compliance and should also be 0. The dindex field reserves the specified number of bytes at the start of common memory. The vspec8 and vspec9 fields may contain vendor-specific information. The nhdr field gives the number of copies of the CIS that are present on this card. The str array contains two strings: a vendor name, and an informational message describing the card. The offset of the vendor string is given by vendor, and the offset of the product info string is in info.
+
 
+
CISTPL_ORG
+
 
+
The cistpl_org_t structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef struct cistpl_org_t {
+
            u_char          data_org;
+
            char            desc[30];
+
 
+
This tuple describes the data organization of a memory partition. The following values are defined for data_org:
+
 
+
CISTPL_ORG_FS
+
 
+
    The partition contains a filesystem.
+
CISTPL_ORG_APPSPEC
+
 
+
    The partition is in an application specific format.
+
CISTPL_ORG_XIP
+
 
+
    The partition follows the Execute-In-Place specification.
+
 
+
The desc field gives a text description of the data organization.
+
 
+
CISTPL_FORMAT
+
 
+
The cistpl_format_t structure is given by:
+
 
+
    typedef struct cistpl_org_t {
+
            u_char          type;
+
            u_char          edc;
+
            u_int          offset;
+
            u_int          length;
+
 
+
This tuple describes the data recording format for a memory region. The following values are defined for type:
+
 
+
CISTPL_FORMAT_DISK
+
 
+
    The partition uses a disk-like format.
+
CISTPL_FORMAT_MEM
+
 
+
    The partition uses a memory-like format.
+
 
+
The following values are defined for edc:
+
 
+
CISTPL_EDC_NONE
+
 
+
    No error detection code is used.
+
CISTPL_EDC_CKSUM
+
 
+
    Each block has a one-byte arithmetic checksum.
+
CISTPL_EDC_CRC
+
 
+
    Each block has a two-byte cyclic redundancy check.
+
CISTPL_EDC_PCC
+
 
+
    The entire partition has a one-byte checksum.
+
 
+
The offset field specifies the address of the first data byte, and length specifies the total number of data bytes in this partition.
+
 
+
==== CIS configuration register definitions ====
+
 
+
The PC Card standard defines a few standard configuration registers located in a card's attribute memory space. A card's CONFIG tuple specifies which of these registers are implemented. Programs using these definitions should include:
+
 
+
    #include "cisreg.h"
+
 
+
Configuration Option Register
+
 
+
This register should be present for virtually all IO cards. Writing to this register selects a configuration table entry and enables a card's IO functions.
+
 
+
The following bit fields are defined:
+
 
+
COR_CONFIG_MASK
+
 
+
    Specifies the configuration table index describing the card's current operating mode.
+
COR_LEVEL_REQ
+
 
+
    Specifies that the card should generate level mode (edge-triggered) interrupts, the default.
+
COR_SOFT_RESET
+
 
+
    Setting this bit performs a ``soft'' reset operation. Drivers should use the ResetCard call to reset a card, rather than writing directly to this register.
+
 
+
Card Configuration and Status Register
+
 
+
The following bit fields are defined:
+
 
+
CCSR_INTR_ACK
+
 
+
    If this bit is set, then the CCSR_INTR_PENDING bit will remain set until it is explicitly cleared.
+
CCSR_INTR_PENDING
+
 
+
    Signals that the card is currently asserting an interrupt request. This signal may be helpful for supporting interrupt sharing.
+
CCSR_POWER_DOWN
+
 
+
    Setting this bit signals that the card should enter a power down state.
+
CCSR_AUDIO_ENA
+
 
+
    Specifies that the card's audio output should be enabled.
+
CCSR_IOIS8
+
 
+
    This is used by the host to indicate that it can only perform 8-bit IO operations and that 16-bit accesses will be carried out as two 8-bit accesses.
+
CCSR_SIGCHG_ENA
+
 
+
    This indicates to the card that it should use the SIGCHG signal to indicate changes in the WP, READY, BVD1, and BVD2 signals.
+
CCSR_CHANGED
+
 
+
    This bit signals to the host that one of the signals in the Pin Replacement Register has changed state.
+
 
+
Pin Replacement Register
+
 
+
Signals in this register replace signals that are not available when a socket is operating in memory and IO mode. An IO card will normally assert the SIGCHG signal to indicate that one of these signals has changed state, then a driver can poll this register to find out specifically what happened.
+
 
+
The following bit fields are defined:
+
 
+
PRR_WP_STATUS
+
 
+
    The current state of the write protect signal.
+
PRR_READY_STATUS
+
 
+
    The current state of the ready signal.
+
PRR_BVD2_STATUS
+
 
+
    The current state of the battery warn signal.
+
PRR_BVD1_STATUS
+
 
+
    The current state of the battery dead signal.
+
PRR_WP_EVENT
+
 
+
    Indicates that the write protect signal has changed state since the PRR register was last read.
+
PRR_READY_EVENT
+
 
+
    Indicates that the ready signal has changed state since the PRR register was last read.
+
PRR_BVD2_EVENT
+
 
+
    Indicates that the battery warn signal has changed state since the PRR register was last read.
+
PRR_BVD1_EVENT
+
 
+
    Indicates that the battery dead signal has changed state since the PRR register was last read.
+
 
+
This register can also be written. In this case, the STATUS bits act as a mask; if a STATUS bit is set, the corresponding EVENT bit is updated by the write.
+
 
+
Socket and Copy Register
+
 
+
This register is used when several identical cards may be set up to share the same range of IO ports, to emulate an ISA bus card that would control several devices. For example, an ISA hard drive controller might control several drives, selectable by writing a drive number to an IO port. For several card drives to emulate this controller interface, each needs to ``know'' which drive it is, so that it can identify which IO operations are intended for it.
+
 
+
The following bit fields are defined:
+
 
+
SCR_SOCKET_NUM
+
 
+
    This should indicate the socket number in which the card is located.
+
SCR_COPY_NUM
+
 
+
    If several identical cards are installed in a system, this field should be set to a unique number identifying which of the identical cards this is.
+
 
+
Extended Status Register
+
 
+
The following bit fields are defined:
+
 
+
ESR_REQ_ATTN_ENA
+
 
+
    When set, the CCSR_CHANGED bit will be set when the ESR_REQ_ATTN bit is set, possibly generating a status change interrupt.
+
ESR_REQ_ATTN
+
 
+
    Signals a card event, such as an incoming call for a modem.
+
 
+
IO Base and Size Registers
+
 
+
For multifunction cards, these registers are used to tell the card how the host IO windows have been configured for each card function. There are four IO Base registers, from CISREG_IOBASE_0 to CISREG_IOBASE_3, for the low-order through high-order bytes of an IO address up to 32 bits long. The CISREG_IOSIZE register is supposed to be written as the number of IO ports allocated, minus one. For MFC-compliant cards, Card Services will automatically set all of these registers when RequestConfiguration is called.
+
  
 
== About devtools ==
 
== About devtools ==
Line 3,301: Line 1,282:
 
http://freshmeat.net/projects/gentooforzaurus/
 
http://freshmeat.net/projects/gentooforzaurus/
 
Gentoo For Zaurus is a port of the Gentoo Distribution to the Zaurus PDA, based on Cacko X11 Rom and The Emerde Project. It can be mounted over NFS so no changes to a current configuration are needed. It includes a native gcc environment for ARM, the zgcc-3.3.1 cross compiler for the main PC with distcc configured so that the main PC does the actual compiling, and X11 for testing applications. The first public release was version 0.1.1, dated January 6, 2004. Version 0.2.2 was released February 2, 2004.
 
Gentoo For Zaurus is a port of the Gentoo Distribution to the Zaurus PDA, based on Cacko X11 Rom and The Emerde Project. It can be mounted over NFS so no changes to a current configuration are needed. It includes a native gcc environment for ARM, the zgcc-3.3.1 cross compiler for the main PC with distcc configured so that the main PC does the actual compiling, and X11 for testing applications. The first public release was version 0.1.1, dated January 6, 2004. Version 0.2.2 was released February 2, 2004.
 +
 +
[[Category:Flameman]]
 +
[[Category:Development Boards]]

Latest revision as of 07:33, 28 October 2011

For more interesting projects done by Flameman, be sure to check out his project index

ipaq-36xx-Flameman

Introduction

The Target-goal of this page is

  • install gentoo-arm into microdrive
  • make the board able to boot from it
  • describe how to build a jtag cable (to debug and recover from "Brickage")
  • describe something useful with you can do with the PDA


logical steps about installing gentoo

  • add the JTAG connector at ipaq-36**
  • build the JTAG cable (you could skip it, it is suggested))
  • study the bootloader
  • make partitions on the microdrive
  • populate them
  • set the bootloader environment to boot from the microdrive

People you could contact if you need help

  • flameman, I'm currently use this board for a project
    • msn daredevil-coder@hotmail.it
    • email flamemaniii@gmail.com
    • irc.nick flameman (channel #edev, #gentoo-ppc)
  • you ... if you want ;-)

About the board

Ipaq-3660.jpg


ipaq PDA is a shortened name for Pesktop Personal Computer developed by Compact & HP.

iPAQ presently refers to a Pocket PC and personal digital assistant first unveiled by Compaq in April 2000; the name was borrowed from Compaq's earlier iPAQ Desktop Personal Computers. Since Hewlett-Packard's acquisition of Compaq, the product has been marketed by HP. The device is the main competition to the Palm, but provides more multimedia capabilities using a Microsoft Windows interface. In addition to this, there are several Linux distributions that will also operate on some of these devices. Earlier, units were modular. "Sleeve" accessories, technically called jackets, which slide around the unit and add functionality such as a card reader, wireless networking, GPS, and even extra batteries were used. Current iPAQs have most of these features integrated into the base device itself.

Hewlett-Packard introduced the first SmartPhone iPaq Pocket PC that looks like a regular cell phone and has VoIP capability. The series is the HP iPAQ 500 Series Voice Messenger


Compaq iPAQ H3600 series

Compaq's flagship iPAQs were the 3600 series models. Originally running the Microsoft Windows for Pocket PC 2000 OS, these devices featured 12-bit color displays, 32/64 MB of RAM, and 16 MB ROM.

Models in the 3600 series are:

3630, 3635, 3650 - which are identical models with 16 MB ROM and 32 MB RAM sold via different marketing channels. The 3635 was accompanied by a CF expansion sleeve that was sold separately with the other 2.

3660, 3670 - 64MB RAM. The 3670 was distributed in the US while the 3660 was distributed in Europe.

A Pocket PC 2002 OS upgrade is available, but the smaller ROM requires some software such as the media player to install in volatile RAM instead of the ROM as in the previous Pocket PC 2000.

As used units are low price, they are a great way to inexpensively get started with a PDA.

While limited by no on-board expansion slot, the iPAQ 3600 series memory and functionality can still be expanded by optional Compact Flash and PCMCIA sleeves, which allow users to add memory and peripherals. Some of these sleeves contain extra batteries to extend the iPAQ's battery life under the strain of added devices.

Overview

The main board of the iPAQ H3660 consists of the SA-1110 CPU, flash ROM, SDRAM, serial port (RS-232C), USB client port, FIR, touch panel interface, stereo audio codec, audio in/out circuit, microcontroller, and the expansion pack interface and connector.

The board consists of:

  • CPU StrongARM core: 150 Dhrystone 2.1 MIPS @ 133 MHz, 235 Dhrystone 2.1 MIPS @ 206 MHz. The arm SA-1100 is a solid & smart implementation of the arm v4 little endian architecture
  • RAM soldered 64MB DDR onboard memory chip
  • CACHE 32-way set-associative caches
    • 16 kilobyte instruction cache, 8 kilobyte write-back data cache
    • 32-entry MMUs
    • read/write buffer
  • LAN On-Sleeve ethernet: pcmcia 3com*** 10/100 Mbit/s Fast Ethernet
  • UART On-board SA-1100-uart mini-to-DB9 RS232C asynchronous serial port, speeds up to 230k, tested up to 115200bps
  • CF iPAQ pcmcia sleeve has support for IBM/Hitachi Microdrive (/dev/cfa)
  • ROM 16MB flash where it is stored the bootloader
  • System PCB __.0 cm x __.0 cm
  • RTC the real time clock chip is missing???
  • LED Power, 2 LED pairs
  • Watchdog hardware watchdog timer???
  • Power Power-management features: normal (full-on) mode, idle (power-down) mode, sleep (power-down) mode
    • < 240mW @ 1.55V core/133 MHz(TBC)
    • < 400mW @ 1.75V core/206 MHz(TBC)
  • PLL Integrated clock generation, Internal phase-locked loop (PLL), 3.6864-MHz oscillator, 32.768-kHz oscillator
  • Display Transflective TFT liquid crystal display, 12bit color, 240x320
  • I/O Sleeve connector, USB/serial connector, IrDA/CIR
  • Battery 950 mAh Lithium Polymer rechargeable
  • Additional features built into SA-1110 chipset
    • Memory controller supporting ROM, synchronous mask ROM (SMROM), flash, DRAM, synchronous DRAM (SDRAM), SRAM, and SRAM-like variable latency I/O
    • LCD controller: 1-, 2-, or 4-bit gray-scale levels, 8-, 12-, or 16-bit color levels
    • Serial communications module supporting: SDLC, 230-Kbps UART
    • Touch-screen, audio, telecom port
    • Infrared data (IrDA) serial port: 115 Kbps, 4 Mbps
    • Six-channel DMA controller
    • Integrated two-slot PCMCIA controller
    • Twenty-eight general-purpose I/O ports
    • Real-time clock with interrupt capability
    • On-chip oscillators for clock sources
    • Interrupt controller
    • Power-management features
    • Four general-purpose interruptible timers
    • 12-Mbps USB device controller
    • Synchronous serial port (UCB1100, UCB1200, SPI, TI, Wire)
    • 256 mini-ball grid array (mBGA)



  • ARM
    • Arm Architecture Reference Manual book edited by Dave Jagger (get it from Amazon.com)
    • ARM System Architecture book by Steve Furber (get it from Amazon.com or Barnes & Noble)
    • ARM *NIX doc http://www.arm.linux.org.uk/

Clock generators

SA-1110 uses only two crystals, 32.768 KHz and 3.6864 MHz, to generate all frequency needed.

Please check SA-1110 Developer's Manual section 8.3 and Appendix B and C on the requirements of these two crystals. The frequency column using 3.579545 MHz crystal is for reference only, the iPAQ H3600 does not use this crystal in its design.

The core frequency can be programmed to the values in table below.


CCF<4..0>


Core Clock Frequency w/3.6864 MHz X'tal


Core Clock Frequency w/3.579545 MHz X'tal

00000


59.0 MHz


57.3 MHz

00001


73.7 MHz


71.6 MHz

00010


88.5 MHz


85.9 MHz

00011


103.2 MHz


100.2 MHz

00100


118.0 MHz


114.5 MHz

00101


132.7 MHz


128.9 MHz

00110


147.5 MHz


143.2 MHz

00111


162.2 MHz


157.5 MHz

01000


176.2 MHz


171.8 MHz

01001


191.7 MHz


186.1 MHz

01010


206.4 MHz


200.5 MHz

01011


221.2 MHz


214.8 MHz

01100 - 11111


Not Supported

Memory Map

Address range


Function


Description 1 0h0000 0000 - 0h07FF FFFF Static Bank Select 0 (128 MB) iPAQ H3600 onboard flash (MCS0#) 2 0h0800 0000 - 0h0FFF FFFF Static Bank Select 1 (128 MB) Reserved (MCS1#) 3 0h1000 0000 - 0h17FF FFFF Static Bank Select 2 (128 MB) Expansion pack (MCS2#) 4 0h1800 0000 - 0h1FFF FFFF Static Bank Select 3 (128 MB) Expansion pack (MCS3#) 5 0h2000 0000 - 0h2FFF FFFF PCMCIA Socket 0 Space (256 MB) Expansion pack PCMCIA/CF slot 0 Interface 6 0h3000 0000 - 0h3FFF FFFF PCMCIA Socket 1 Space (256 MB) Expansion pack PCMCIA/CF slot 1 Interface 7 0h4000 0000 - 0h47FF FFFF Static Bank Select 4 (128 MB) Static Memory or Variable Latency I/O Interface, 256 MB(MCS4#, MCS5#)

(Expansion pack MCS4#) 8 0h4800 0000 - 0h4FFF FFFF Static Bank Select 5 (128 MB) Extended I/O and PPSH use (MCS5#) 9 0h5000 0000 - 0h7FFF FFFF Reserved (768 MB) 10 0h8000 0000 - 0h8FFF FFFF Peripheral Control Module Registers

(256 MB)

11 0h9000 0000 - 0h9FFF FFFF System Control Module Registers

(256 MB)

12 0hA000 0000 - 0hAFFF FFFF Memory and Expansion Registers

(256 MB)

13 0hB000 0000 - 0hBFFF FFFF LCD and DMA Registers (256 MB) 14 0hC000 0000 - 0hC7FF FFFF DRAM Bank 0 (128 MB) 512 MB. The iPAQ H3600 uses bank 0 only. 15 0hC800 0000 - 0hCFFF FFFF DRAM Bank 1 (128 MB) Reserved 16 0hD000 0000 - 0hD7FF FFFF DRAM Bank 2 (128 MB) Reserved 17 0hD800 0000 - 0hDFFF FFFF DRAM Bank 3 (128 MB) Reserved 18 0hE000 0000 - 0hE7FF FFFF Zeros Bank (128 MB) Cache flush replacement data.

Reads return zero, 128 MB 19 0hE800 0000 - 0hFFFF FFFF Reserved (384 MB)


Supporting two-channel CF/PCMCIA expansion pack

The iPAQ H3600 supports two-channel CF/PCMCIA expansion pack decode, but needs special handling on Card inserted detection(CARD_IND#) and Card IRQ(CARD_IRQ#). On the expansion pack connector, the PSKTSEL signal can be used to decode which CF/PCMCIA slot is selected for two-channel CF/PCMCIA expansion packs. PSKTSEL=0 selects channel 0, PSKTSEL=1 selects channel 1.

The default PCMCIA/CF slot is slot 0 and supports external connections. The second PCMCIA/CF is slot 1 and is for embedded slot only.

Memory Locations

memory map of the board will be added as soon as possible


addr begin addr end area
...  ?? ram, userspace
****  ?? ram, userspace

Open questions


1) how/where is ram mapped ?

2) how/where is microdrive mapped ?

3) how/where is pci mapped ?

3) what is the bootstrap addr of the flash ?

...

Problems

about sleeve 2xpcmcia: card inserted detection(CARD_IND#) seems to have success, while Card IRQ(CARD_IRQ#) has failure

anyway the higher layer dosn't attach: the real reason why it happens is obscure and need to be debugged a bit ... NO ONE KERNEL FROM THE HH CVS IS ABLE TO HANDLE THE SLEEVE 2 x PCMCIA

so from my point of view, there is nothing working in the 36** archive: i mean the sleeve 2xpcmcia has never worked with any kernel 2.6 !


i have to investigate the reason why, but ... i need a real working machine, so i think i will switch myself to h55** that should work: in this case, if i would have a confirm the h55** is really working with such a sleeve ... i will have a look in his specific kernel sources tree, just to understood and compare what is the specific problem of the h36** support !


anybody working with h55** and sleeve 2xpcmcia ? please report your experience @ flamemaniii@gmail.com

Images of the board

Ipaq-3660 board.jpg

HW table

Flameman/ipaq/hw

Jtag

http://openwince.sourceforge.net/jtag/iPAQ-3600/

About kernel

news about

http://kernelnewbies.org/LinuxChanges


news for iPAQ

you can read about kernel status and user land @ Flameman/ipaq/status




any suggestion, testing, such a collaboration is pretty welcome !





.

poor dmesg (dual pcmcia sleeve)

boot> ser_con
serial console at your service...
boot> boot vfat
h3600_sleeve_init_module
h3600_generic_pcmcia_init_module: registering sleeve drivers
registering sleeve driver 0003ACF4
registering sleeve driver 0003AD44
registering sleeve driver 0003ACA4
h3600_sleeve_insert: no spi read, defaulting sleeve vendor
h3600_sleeve_insert: no spi read, defaulting sleeve deviceid
 sleeve vendorid=00001125
 sleeve deviceid=0000D7C3
pcmcia_probe_sleeve
  probing for dual pcmcia sleeve
  dual_pcmcia_linkup[0]->prc=000019B0
dual_pcmcia_probe_sleeve
h3600_sleeve_insert: matched driver Compaq PC Card Sleeve
pcmcia_init_module
cis[0] =00000001
  01 04 DF 12 01 FF
  1C 05 03 DF 12 01 FF
  18 02 DF 01
  21 02 04 01
  funcid=00000004
    fixed disk
  22 02 01 01
  22 03 02 08 0F
  1A 05 01 07 00 02 0F
  1B 0B C0 C0 A1 27 55 4D 5D 4E 08 00 20
  1B 06 00 01 21 B5 1E 3E
  1B 0D C1 41 99 27 55 4D 5D 4E 64 F0 FF FF 20
  1B 06 01 01 21 B5 1E 3E
  1B 12 C2 41 99 27 55 4D 5D 4E EA 61 F0 01 07 F6 03 01 EE 20
  1B 06 02 01 21 B5 1E 3E
  1B 12 C3 41 99 27 55 4D 5D 4E EA 61 70 01 07 76 03 01 EE 20
  1B 06 03 01 21 B5 1E 3E
  20 04 19 03 00 00
  manfid[0]=00000019
  manfid[1]=00000003
  15 16 04 01 48 49 54 41 43 48 49 00 6D 69 63 72 6F 64 72 69 76 65 00 FF
end
pcmcia_insert: funcid = 00000004
  serial_number:             N2H2ZDBA
  firmware_revision: DNBOCA2A
  model_number: HMS360402D5CF00                         
  n_sectors_user_addressable=00000000
  bytes_per_sector=00000200
  major_version=00007068
  minor_version=0000500C
  flags=0000848A
  ACTUAL bytes_per_sector=00000200
cis[0] =00000001
  01 03 00 00 FF
  17 03 12 00 FF
  15 39 04 01 41 64 61 70 74 65 63 2C 20 49 6E 63 2E 00 41 50 41 2D 31 34 36 30 20 53 43 53 49 20 48 6F 73 74 20 41 64 61 70 74 65 72 00 56 65 72 73 69 6F 6E 20 30 2E 30 31 00 FF
  20 04 2F 01 02 00
  manfid[0]=0000002F
  manfid[1]=00000001
  1A 05 01 08 00 20 01
  1B 0F C9 01 19 49 55 65 06 CA 60 40 03 1F 30 00 1E
  1B 07 08 08 CA 60 40 01 1F
end
pcmcia_insert: funcid = 00000000
ptable signature=0000AA55
Mounting vfat on partition 00000000
cmd vfat mount: partid=00000000
vfat mount: reading bpb_info
  oemname=MSDOS5.0
 Reading params from file: /boot/params
vfat_find_file_entry: fname='boot/params'
                    dirname='boot'
                   basename='PARAMS'
vfat_find_dir_entry: fname='boot'
                   dirname=''
                  basename='boot'
  searching root_dir_entries
vfat_read_clusters_offset: reached VFAT_EOC at bytes_read=00000200
find_file_in_dir:  READt"ŸÁh"ŸÁ,ë
   attr=00000010
   first_cluster=00000003
   n_bytes=00000000
find_file_in_dir:  READt"ŸÁh"ŸÁ,ë
   attr=00000010
   first_cluster=00000000
   n_bytes=00000000
find_file_in_dir:  GENTOO
   attr=00000020
   first_cluster=00000004
   n_bytes=002680B1
find_file_in_dir:  GENTOO
   attr=00000020
   first_cluster=00000004
   n_bytes=002680B1
find_file_in_dir:  ZIMAGE
   attr=00000020
   first_cluster=00001345
   n_bytes=00120790
find_file_in_dir:  ZIMAGE
   attr=00000020
   first_cluster=00001345
   n_bytes=00120790
find_file_in_dir:  PARAMS
   attr=00000020
   first_cluster=00001ACC
   n_bytes=00000099
+ set linuxargs "root=/dev/hda3 init=/bin/bash console=ttySA0,115200"
  setting param <linuxargs> to value <root=/dev/hda3 init=/bin/bash console=ttySA0,115200>
+ set kernel_filename boot/zimage
  setting param <kernel_filename> to value <boot/zimage>
+ set initrd_filename boot/initrd
  setting param <initrd_filename> to value <boot/initrd>
+ set rootfstype ext3
  setting param <rootfstype> to value <ext3>
 Reading kernel from file: boot/zimage
vfat_find_file_entry: fname='boot/zimage'
                    dirname='boot'
                   basename='ZIMAGE'
vfat_find_dir_entry: fname='boot'
                   dirname=''
                  basename='boot'
  searching root_dir_entries
vfat_read_clusters_offset: reached VFAT_EOC at bytes_read=00000200
find_file_in_dir:  PARAt"ŸÁh"ŸÁ,ë
   attr=00000010
   first_cluster=00000003
   n_bytes=00000000
find_file_in_dir:  PARAt"ŸÁh"ŸÁ,ë
   attr=00000010
   first_cluster=00000000
   n_bytes=00000000
find_file_in_dir:  GENTOO
   attr=00000020
   first_cluster=00000004
   n_bytes=002680B1
find_file_in_dir:  GENTOO
   attr=00000020
   first_cluster=00000004
   n_bytes=002680B1
find_file_in_dir:  ZIMAGE
   attr=00000020
   first_cluster=00001345
   n_bytes=00120790
 Reading initrd from file: boot/initrd
vfat_find_file_entry: fname='boot/initrd'
                    dirname='boot'
                   basename='INITRD'
vfat_find_dir_entry: fname='boot'
                   dirname=''
                  basename='boot'
  searching root_dir_entries
vfat_read_clusters_offset: reached VFAT_EOC at bytes_read=00000200
find_file_in_dir:  ZIMAt"ŸÁh"ŸÁ,ë
   attr=00000010
   first_cluster=00000003
   n_bytes=00000000
find_file_in_dir:  ZIMAt"ŸÁh"ŸÁ,ë
   attr=00000010
   first_cluster=00000000
   n_bytes=00000000
find_file_in_dir:  GENTOO
   attr=00000020
   first_cluster=00000004
   n_bytes=002680B1
find_file_in_dir:  GENTOO
   attr=00000020
   first_cluster=00000004
   n_bytes=002680B1
find_file_in_dir:  ZIMAGE
   attr=00000020
   first_cluster=00001345
   n_bytes=00120790
find_file_in_dir:  ZIMAGE
   attr=00000020
   first_cluster=00001345
   n_bytes=00120790
find_file_in_dir:  PARAMS
   attr=00000020
   first_cluster=00001ACC
   n_bytes=00000099
find_file_in_dir:  PARAMS
   attr=00000020
   first_cluster=00001ACC
   n_bytes=00000099
find_file_in_dir:  README.TXT
   attr=00000020
   first_cluster=00002236
   n_bytes=000000CC
find_file_in_dir:  README.TXT
   attr=00000020
   first_cluster=00002236
   n_bytes=000000CC
Could not find file.cmd vfat mount: partid=00000000
vfat mount: reading bpb_info
  oemname=MSDOS5.0
pcmcia_remove_sleeve
Booting vfat...
kernel partition base C0008000
kernel_magic=E1A00000
kernel_region_words[9]=016F2818
Linux ELF flash_imgstart=C0008000 size=00000000 dest=C0000000 offset=00008000
MMU Control=C19F4071
MMU PIDVAM=00000000
Skipping kernel copy by request.
C0008000: E1A00000
C0008004: E1A00000
C0008008: E1A00000
C000800C: E1A00000
C0008010: E1A00000
C0008014: E1A00000
C0008018: E1A00000
C000801C: E1A00000
C0008020: EA000002
C0008024: 016F2818
root_filesystem_name=ide
Grabbed linuxargs, argc = 00000000
Using mach_type 00000016
setting boot parameters to
root=/dev/hda3 init=/bin/bash console=ttySA0,115200
mdcnfg=0000F367
Making core tag at C0000100
Making cmdline tag at C0000114
Making mem32 tag at C00001AC
Making initrd tag at C00001BC
  initrd.start=C0800000
  initrd.size=00000000
command line is: mtdparts=ipaq:0x00040000@0x00000000(bootldr)ro,0x00FC0000@0x00040000(root) root=/dev/hda3 init=/bin/bash console=ttySA0,115200  rootfstype=ext3 
Disabling LCD controller
linuxEntryPoint=C0008000
Booting Linux image
Uncompressing Linux............................................................................ done, booting the kernel.
Linux version 2.6.21-hacked-ipaq-3660 (root@queen-vittoria) (gcc version 4.1.0) #6 Sun Feb 15 20:22:10 CET 2009
CPU: StrongARM-1110 [6901b118] revision 8 (ARMv4), cr=c000717f
Machine: Compaq iPAQ H3600
Memory policy: ECC disabled, Data cache writeback
Built 1 zonelists.  Total pages: 16384
Kernel command line: mtdparts=ipaq:0x00040000@0x00000000(bootldr)ro,0x00FC0000@0x00040000(root) root=/dev/hda3 init=/bin/bash console=ttySA0,115200  rootfstype=ext3 �
PID hash table entries: 512 (order: 9, 2048 bytes)
start_kernel(): bug: interrupts were enabled early
Console: colour dummy device 80x30
Dentry cache hash table entries: 8192 (order: 3, 32768 bytes)
Inode-cache hash table entries: 4096 (order: 2, 16384 bytes)
Memory: 64MB = 64MB total
Memory: 62464KB available (1918K code, 427K data, 96K init)
Mount-cache hash table entries: 512
CPU: Testing write buffer coherency: ok
NET: Registered protocol family 16
SCSI subsystem initialized
NET: Registered protocol family 2
IP route cache hash table entries: 512 (order: -1, 2048 bytes)
TCP established hash table entries: 2048 (order: 1, 8192 bytes)
TCP bind hash table entries: 1024 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
TCP: Hash tables configured (established 2048 bind 1024)
TCP reno registered
NetWinder Floating Point Emulator V0.97 (double precision)
io scheduler noop registered
io scheduler anticipatory registered
io scheduler deadline registered
io scheduler cfq registered (default)
pccard: PCMCIA card inserted into slot 0
pccard: PCMCIA card inserted into slot 1
Serial: SA11x0 driver $Revision: 1.50 $
sa11x0-uart.3: ttySA0 at MMIO 0x80050000 (irq = 17) is a SA1100
loop: loaded (max 8 devices)
Uniform Multi-Platform E-IDE driver Revision: 7.00alpha2
ide: Assuming 50MHz system bus speed for PIO modes; override with idebus=xx
SCSI Media Changer driver v0.25 
Intel ISA PCIC probe: <1>Unable to handle kernel NULL pointer dereference at virtual address 000003e0
pgd = c0004000
[000003e0] *pgd=00000000
Internal error: Oops: c0007805 [#1]
Modules linked in:
CPU: 0
PC is at i365_get+0x48/0x60
LR is at identify+0x7c/0x1d8
pc : [<c0143ab4>]    lr : [<c0016af4>]    Not tainted
sp : c0317f44  ip : 60000013  fp : c0317f50
r10: 00000000  r9 : 00000000  r8 : 00000000
r7 : 000003e0  r6 : c0316000  r5 : c025f640  r4 : c0217824
r3 : 00000000  r2 : 000003e0  r1 : 00000000  r0 : 00000000
Flags: nZCv  IRQs off  FIQs on  Mode SVC_32  Segment kernel
Control: C000717F  Table: C000717F  DAC: 00000017
Process swapper (pid: 1, stack limit = 0xc0316250)
Stack: (0xc0317f44 to 0xc0318000)
7f40:          c0317f70 c0317f54 c0016af4 c0143a78 c0217824 c025f640 c0316000 
7f60: 00000000 c0317fac c0317f74 c0017810 c0016a84 c0317f80 c01030f8 c0143a1c 
7f80: c001b1c4 c001b1c4 c001ac9c c0316000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 
7fa0: c0317ff4 c0317fb0 c00200b4 c001779c 00000000 00000000 c002002c c0037fe4 
7fc0: 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 
7fe0: 00000000 00000000 00000000 c0317ff8 c0037fe4 c0020038 71657220 65726975 
Backtrace: 
[<c0143a6c>] (i365_get+0x0/0x60) from [<c0016af4>] (identify+0x7c/0x1d8)
[<c0016a78>] (identify+0x0/0x1d8) from [<c0017810>] (init_i82365+0x80/0x454)
 r7 = 00000000  r6 = C0316000  r5 = C025F640  r4 = C0217824
[<c0017790>] (init_i82365+0x0/0x454) from [<c00200b4>] (init+0x88/0x264)
[<c002002c>] (init+0x0/0x264) from [<c0037fe4>] (do_exit+0x0/0x74c)
 r7 = 00000000  r6 = 00000000  r5 = 00000000  r4 = 00000000
Code: e1d330b0 e5922228 e0811303 e20110ff (e5c21000) 
 <0>Kernel panic - not syncing: Attempted to kill init!


the dual pcmcia sleeve is not working


good dmesg (1x pcmcia sleeve)

coming soon


what/where

kernels 2.6

Using the bootldr there is the possibility to boot from the pcmcia sleeves in where it can be allocated a microdrive (CF2). it's not possible to maintain the windows CE on the iPAQ with a sort of dual boot. As far as i know there is no 2.6 kernel used at this time (that means no support), there is only 2.4 cause most of developers are working on the openmoko project which is a full open source mobile phone.

Feel free to take a look there, that's interesting, anyway if you are still interested about iPAQ: these are my experimental results about iPAQ 3630-3660 and the 2.6

Flameman/ipaq/kernel

studying how to write kernel drivers

http://lwn.net/Kernel/LDD3/

also


The socket controller

The socket controller serves as a bridge between PC Card devices and the system bus. There are several varieties of controllers, but all share the same basic functionality. The Socket Services software layer takes care of all the details of how to program the host controller.

The socket controller has the job of mapping windows of addresses in the host memory and IO spaces to windows of addresses in card space. All supported controllers support at least four independent memory windows and two IO windows per socket.

Each memory window is defined by a base address in the host address space, a base address in the card address space, and a window size. Some controllers differ in their alignment rules for memory windows, but all controllers will support windows whose size is at least 4K and also a power of two, and where the base address is a multiple of the window size. Each window can be programmed to point to either attribute or common memory.

IO windows differ from memory windows in that host addresses that fall within an IO window are not modified before they are passed on to an IO card. Effectively, the base addresses of the window in the host and card address spaces are always equal. IO windows also have no alignment or size restrictions; an IO window can start and end on any byte boundary in the 64K IO address space.

The PC Card bus defines a single interrupt signal from the card to the controller. The controller then has the responsibility of steering this interrupt to an appropriate interrupt request (``irq) line. All controllers support steering card IO interrupts to essentially any free interrupt line. Because steering happens in the controller, the card itself is unaware of which interrupt it uses.

All PC Card controllers can generate interrupts in response to card status changes. These interrupts are distinct from the IO interrupts generated by an IO card, and use a separate interrupt line. Signals that can generate interrupts include card detect, ready/busy, write protect, battery low, and battery dead


pcmcia sleeve

There is an issue with pcmcia sleeve: the problem doesn't occur with single slot sleeves with part number 173396-001 but does occur in dual slot sleeves with part number 216198-B21. And we have only today found that the problem also occurs with new (?) model single slot sleeves with part number 249704-B22.


sources fix up is required


how to write a pcmcia kernel driver http://www.linux-mag.com/id/1981

  • sa11xx_drv_pcmcia_probe -> soc_common_drv_pcmcia_probe




  • drivers/pcmcia/cs.c: socket_insert
  • drivers/pcmcia/pcmcia_ioctl.c: p_dev = pcmcia_device_add(s, bind_info->function);
  • drivers/pcmcia/ds.c: "pcmcia: registering new device %s\n" -> struct pcmcia_device * pcmcia_device_add(struct pcmcia_socket *s, unsigned int function)

dmesg

on 04-12-2009

nothing


gentoo, booting from the CF

initialize it

   1. boot> sleeve insert
   2. boot> pcmcia insert

http://handhelds.org/moin/moin.cgi/BootingLinuxFromCF

http://blog.lsweb.eu/index.php?itemid=2

boot loader

bootblaster

kexecboot

http://jay-home.ath.cx/zImage-kexecboot-2.6.21-hh20-r12-h5000.bin

http://jay-home.ath.cx/zImage-2.6.21-hh20-r25-h5000.bin

http://jay-home.ath.cx/modules-2.6.21-hh20-r25-h5000.tgz

thanks to Jay7

idea

"boot ide" doesn't use a filesystem at all. I suspect that what you really want is "boot vfat", which uses a VFAT filesystem. The disk can (indeed, probably should) have a partition table.

Bootldr can't read ext2, so you would need to create a special /boot partition as VFAT. Other than that, and the normal drama relating to having the root partition on a PCMCIA device, it should boot Debian just fine.


proof fix up

I have been trying to boot Intimate off of a 2GB Kingston PCMCIA hard drive. It looks like the boot vfat function is not reading the partition table on the drive correctly. I have found several posts by other people who have 2GB or 5GB drives that have identical errors. I would like to know if anyone has succeeded in working around this problem.

   Hmm...I wrote that wiki based on my own experience getting it going.
   Unless the 4GB card is just too big for the sleeve or some other
   unidentified problem, it should work.

So I believe I located the problem. This line from the mkdosfs man page:


   -F FAT-size
                Specifies  the type of file allocation tables used (12, 16 or 32
                bit).  If  nothing  is  specified,  mkdosfs  will  automatically
                select  between  12  and  16  bit,  whatever fits better for the
                filesystem size.  32 bit FAT  (FAT32  format)  must  (still)  be
                selected explicitly if you want it.


Running "mkdosfs -F16 /dev/hde1" on a 256 MB vfat partition created a bootable CF microdrive. My guess is that for most of the partition sizes I chose, it defaulted to FAT12 when I didn't specify that option, even though I selected FAT16 in fdisk. Thanks again for your help.

issue

[*] BootBlaster locks up WinCE as soon as I run it! -> If you are running BootBlaster from an SD card, try copying it to a location on the iPAQ itself eg. the "iPAQ file store"


http://www.mail-archive.com/angstrom-distro-users@linuxtogo.org/msg01408.html

I am attempting to boot from a 4GB Hitachi Microdrive on an iPAQ h5500 with a PCMCIA-cf, following the steps at:

http://www.handhelds.org/moin/moin.cgi/BootingLinuxFromCF

The most common problem I am running into is the "filename too long" error. There was a quick fix posted online that failed for me (remounting the vfat partition as msdos and recopying initrd, param and zimage in). There was also a suggestion that bootldr cannot handle large vfat partitions (> 32 MB), but the post was years old. Is this still the case?

Here is what happens using

boot> boot vfat                                                                
warning, no sleeve detected.  attempting pcmcia insert anyway.                  
h5400_control_egpio: not implemented yet for this egpio                        
h3600_sleeve_insert: no spi read, defaulting sleeve vendor                      
h3600_sleeve_insert: no spi read, defaulting sleeve deviceid                    
 sleeve vendorid=00001125                                                      
 sleeve deviceid=0000D7C3                                                      
pcmcia_probe_sleeve                                                            
h5400_control_egpio: not implemented yet for this egpio                        
  probing for dual pcmcia sleeve                                                
  dual_pcmcia_linkup[0]->prc=00000000                                          
dual_pcmcia_probe_sleeve                                                        
h5400_control_egpio: not implemented yet for this egpio                        
h3600_sleeve_insert: matched driver Compaq PC Card Sleeve                      
cis[0] =000000FF                                                                
end                                                                            
pcmcia_insert: funcid = 00000000                                                
cis[0] =000000FF                                                                
end                                                                            
pcmcia_insert: funcid = 00000000                                                
Mounting vfat on partition 00000000                                            
cmd vfat mount: partid=00000000                                                
vfat mount: reading bpb_info                                                    
pcmcia_insert: funcid = 00000000                                                
Mounting vfat on partition 00000000                                            
cmd vfat mount: partid=00000000                                                
vfat mount: reading bpb_info                                                    
 Reading params from file: /boot/params                                        
vfat_find_file_entry: fname='boot/params'                                      
                    dirname='boot'                                              
                   basename='PARAMS'                                            
vfat_find_dir_entry: fname='boot'                                              
                   dirname=''                                                  
                  basename='boot'                                              
  searching root_dir_entries                                                    
Invalid long filename entry: filename too long                                  
 Reading kernel from file: boot/zImage                                          
vfat_find_file_entry: fname='boot/zImage'                                      
                    dirname='boot'                                              
                   basename='ZIMAGE'                                            
vfat_find_dir_entry: fname='boot'                                              
                   dirname=''                                                  
                  basename='boot'                                              
  searching root_dir_entries                                                    
Invalid long filename entry: filename too long                                  
read zimage failed rc=FFFFFFFE  

haret

http://www.handhelds.org/~koconnor/haret/

obsoleted info http://www.handhelds.org/moin/moin.cgi/HaRET

issue

http://www.mail-archive.com/haret@handhelds.org/msg00770.html

ideas2 =

http://www.math.bme.hu/~lackac/ipaq/linux-ipaq/Linux-iPAQ-HOWTO-1.1.htm

HW expansion, hack and such a stuff

compact keyboard

Manufacture's Part# B50111-001, 250111-001, 250110-001, 251274-001

Ipaq-keyboard.jpg

Micro Keyboard for iPaq H3800 series (3830, 3835, 3850, 3870, 3875, etc...) H3900 series (3950, 3955, 3970, 3975, etc), H5400 series (5450, 5455, etc), and H5500 series (5550, 5555) Looking for a small and lightweight keyboard for your iPAQ? This micro keyboard fits seamlessly and securely to your iPAQ Pocket PC with or without an Expansion Pack attached. Its ergonomic design and standard layout let you conveniently type quickly and comfortably anywhere.


it needs to be adapted to h36**, or it will be good in case i will switch to h5500


X11: emerging x11-base/kdrive --> USE=kdrive cross-emerge xorg

image of the previous kernel 2.4 rootfs and such a stuff

Media:old-roofs.jffs2|old-rootfs.jffs2

About stage3


what is the difference between arm and arm41 ? arm and armeb ?

is the (iPAQ 36** CPU) arm-sa1100 big or little endian ?


as far as i understand

  • stage3-armeb mean big endian
  • stage3-arm is little endian
  • sa-1100 should be an arm.v4 ... so stage3-arm41 should be fine


cross emerge

http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/base/embedded/handbook/?part=1&chap=5


Qt-embedded-interest, X-Server over qt-embedded?

Qt/Embedded

Qt/embedded is a version of the Qt™ library that does not use the X window system, but draws directly to the framebuffer on Linux® systems. It is therefore interesting for embedded systems which have tight restrictions on the memory usage of the whole system. Its API is fully compatible with the one of the X11 version.

A great lack of qte is that you cannot run all the useful X applications that have been developed all over the years.

The major selling point of qt-embedded is to avoid using the X-Server to save memory and disk space on an embedded platform. If you want to use an existing X-Server to run Qt applications then use Qt/X11, not Qt/Embedded.


Chi si occupa dello sviluppo di applicazioni per piccoli schermi, conosce molto bene le difficoltà nel realizzare un software che sia multipiattaforma senza stravolgere diverse parti del codice scritto. Fino a oggi l’unica scelta praticabile era, forse, Java, che con le sue librerie assicurava una qualche forma di portabilità, purtroppo non totale per applicativi che fanno un uso avanzato di grafica, multimedia e funzionalità del “device”. Fino a oggi, dicevo.

Esiste infatti una seconda via, ancora poco conosciuta, ma che secondo me riserva grandi potenzialità: quella di usare le QT Embedded, un potente framework applicativo sviluppato in C++, che attualmente gira su sistemi Windows CE ed embedded Linux. Basta guardare un video per capire cosa sia possibile fare già a partire da adesso.

Sono supportate nativamente funzioni quali l’antialiasing, la gestione del formato SVG, trasformazioni vettoriali, alpha cannel e molto altro.

Per chi si sta chiedendo che tipo di azienda sia questa Trolltech, vi posso dire che le sue librerie QT sono uno standard grafico sotto GNU/Linux, che vengono usate da KDE, che programmi sviluppati con questo framework possono funzionare anche sotto Windows e sotto Mac e che recentemente è stata acquistata dalla Nokia.

idea of kernel 2.4 familiar

http://www.brucalipto.org/linux/linux-su-ipaq

idea of BinaryGentoo

be inspired be this article http://lesinigo.it/BinaryGentoo

irda ppp

Installation

To install IrDA-Utils: emerge -a irda-utils [edit] Start /etc/init.d/irda start

Put device near Ir port and check: cat /proc/net/irda/discovery

If log is not empty everything is OK. [edit] Settings

   * /etc/irda

About stage4

X11

intro

Microwindows is an Open Source project aimed at bringing the features of modern graphical windowing environments to smaller devices and platforms. Microwindows allows applications to be built and tested on the Linux desktop, as well as cross-compiled for the target device.

Microwindows' genesis was with the NanoGUI project, and has now been combined into a single distribution. The Win32 API implementation is known as Microwindows, and the Xlib-like API implementation is known as Nano-X.

Since the WinCE API is mostly a subset of the Win32 API for graphics-related functions, the Microwindows API is also WinCE compatible, and can be used to implement WinCE graphics functions on platforms Microwindows is running on.

What is Microwindows?

Microwindows is an Open Source project that brings some of the features of modern graphical windowing systems to the programming community not wanting or requiring the large disk and ram requirements of higher-end windowing systems like Microsoft Windows or the X Window System. Microwindows does not require any operating system or other graphics system support, as it writes directly to the display hardware, although it runs well on Linux framebuffer systems. Microwindows is designed to be portable, and can run in a wide variety of hardware and software environments. One the of more interesting targets is the emerging market of portable handheld and pocket PC's running Linux, also known as LinuxCE.

What does Microwindows run on?

Microwindows currently runs on 32-bit Linux systems with kernel framebuffer support, or through the popular SVGAlib library. In addition, it has been ported to 16-bit Linux ELKS, and real-mode MSDOS. Microwindows screen drivers for 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 bits-per-pixel have been written, as well as a VGA 16 color 4 planes driver. Microwindows has been ported to a number of Handheld and Pocket PC's, as well. The Microwindows graphics engine is capable of running on any system that supports readpixel, writepixel, drawhorzline and drawvertline, and setpalette. Blitting support is optional, but if implemented allows enhanced functionality. All bitmap, font, cursor and color support is implemented on top of these routines. Support for 8, 15, 16 and 32 bit truecolor systems as well as 1, 2, 4 and 8bpp palletized systems is implemented.

Recently, an X11 driver was completed that allows Microwindows applications to be run on top of the X Window desktop. This driver emulates all of Microwindows' truecolor and palette modes so that an application can be previewed using the target system's display characteristics directly on the desktop display, regardless of the desktop display characteristics.

What CPU's are supported?

Microwindows is extremely portable, and completely written in C, although some routines have been recoded in assembly for speed. It has been ported to the Intel 16 and 32 bit cpu's, as well as MIPS R4000 (NEC Vr41xx) and ARM chips found on popular handheld and pocket PC's.

How big is Microwindows?

On 16 bit systems, the entire system, including screen, mouse and keyboard drivers runs in less than 64k. On 32-bit systems, support includes proportional fonts and applications are typically less than 100k.

What is Microwindows' architecture and what API's are supported?

Microwindows is essentially a layered design that allows different layers to be used or rewritten to suite the needs of the implementation. At the lowest level, screen, mouse/touchpad and keyboard drivers provide access to the actual display and other user-input hardware. At the mid level, a portable graphics engine is implemented, providing support for line draws, area fills, polygons, clipping and color models. At the upper level, various API's are implemented providing access to the graphics applications programmer. These APIs may or may not provide desktop and/or window look and feel. Currently, Microwindows supports the Win32 and Nano-X APIs. These APIs provide close compatibility with the Win32 and X Window systems, allowing programs to be ported from other systems easily.


fbdev

On my:

links -g -driver fb returns: Could not initialize graphics driver fb: Could not get VT mode

(This one looks to me like stock /etc/fb.modes limitation, like I need to add my mode there. right?)



nano X11 on iPAQ

so the nano-X does not provide X, it's rather a desktop environment


What are Nano-X's graphics features?

Nano-X features full RGB color support, color mapping, optimized palette bitmap drawing, true color and palletized displays, and a 3d look-and-feel. Overlapped and child windows are supported, with complete window and client area clipping. Proportional and fixed fonts are supported, along with utilities for converting fonts or bitmap files. Optimized painting algorithms are used to allow maximum response while the user is moving windows on the screen. Off screen drawing and bit-blit routines are implemented for flicker-free drawing and animation. Polygon draws, fills and arbitrary region clipping are also supported.

so the first right choice seems to be nano-X, that means http://www.microwindows.org, that in my actual branch ... that will be supported by a specific gentoo overlay ... well it has a bit of issues that require me to compile it with the most extremely essential support i can do in order to have it running

IPAQ_KB requires you have the tiny plastic keyboard attached on the back of your iPAQ ... if you have such an extra stuff (you could buy on ebay for 15 euro or less) ... well the software driver has a bit of issue with IPAQ_KB_OPEN, so i am considering to use TTYKBD

TTYKBD uses a very simple ascii-only return values, and won't return function key values correctly. ... on iPAQ it needs the CONSOLE set

The mouse type is setup in the Nano-X configuration file, src/config. The mouse type to be used with Nano-X is set in the config file and the specified mouse driver is then compiled in. Touch panel drivers use the mouse interface with a specific driver. Following are the currently supported mouse types settable in the config file:

  • IPAQMOUSE - touch panel driver for iPAQ/Assabet (mknode /dev/h3600_ts c 11 0)
  • NOMOUSE - no mouse/touch panel in system


/*
 * Microwindows keyboard driver for Compaq iPAQ
 *
 * Copyright (c) 2000, 2003 Century Software Embedded Technologies
 * Written by Jordan Crouse
 */
#include <stdio.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include "device.h"

#define IPAQ_SCANCODE_RECORD    129
#define IPAQ_SCANCODE_CALENDAR  130
#define IPAQ_SCANCODE_CONTACTS 131
#define IPAQ_SCANCODE_Q        132
#define IPAQ_SCANCODE_START    133
#define IPAQ_SCANCODE_UP       134 /* keycode up */
#define IPAQ_SCANCODE_RIGHT    135 /* keycode right */
#define IPAQ_SCANCODE_LEFT     136 /* keycode left */
#define IPAQ_SCANCODE_DOWN     137 /* keycode down */
#define IPAQ_SCANCODE_ACTION   138
#define IPAQ_SCANCODE_SUSPEND  139

#ifdef __ECOS
#define KEYBOARD "/dev/kbd"
#else
#define KEYBOARD "/dev/h3600_key"
#endif

static int  IPAQ_Open(KBDDEVICE *pkd);
static void IPAQ_Close(void);
static void IPAQ_GetModifierInfo(MWKEYMOD *modifiers, MWKEYMOD *curmodifiers);
static int  IPAQ_Read(MWKEY *kbuf, MWKEYMOD *modifiers, MWSCANCODE *scancode);

KBDDEVICE kbddev = {
        IPAQ_Open,
        IPAQ_Close,
        IPAQ_GetModifierInfo,
        IPAQ_Read,
        NULL
};

static int fd;

/* From the kernel - this maps a single index into */
/* the correct scancode */
static unsigned char scancodes[] = {
        0, 			/* unused */
        IPAQ_SCANCODE_RECORD, 	/* 1 -> record button */
        IPAQ_SCANCODE_CALENDAR, /* 2 -> calendar */
        IPAQ_SCANCODE_CONTACTS, /* 3 -> contact */
        IPAQ_SCANCODE_Q, 	/* 4 -> Q button */
        IPAQ_SCANCODE_START, 	/* 5 -> start menu */
        IPAQ_SCANCODE_UP, 	/* 6 -> up */
        IPAQ_SCANCODE_RIGHT, 	/* 7 -> right */
        IPAQ_SCANCODE_LEFT, 	/* 8 -> left */
        IPAQ_SCANCODE_DOWN, 	/* 9 -> down */
        IPAQ_SCANCODE_ACTION, 	/* 10 */
        IPAQ_SCANCODE_SUSPEND
};

static int
IPAQ_Open(KBDDEVICE * pkd)
{
        /* Open the keyboard and get it ready for use */
        fd = open(KEYBOARD, O_RDONLY | O_NONBLOCK);

        if (fd < 0) {
                DPRINTF("%s - Can't open keyboard!\n", __FUNCTION__);
                return -1;
        }

        return fd;
}

static void
IPAQ_Close(void)
{
        close(fd);
        fd = -1;
}

static void
IPAQ_GetModifierInfo(MWKEYMOD * modifiers, MWKEYMOD * curmodifiers)
{
        if (modifiers)
                *modifiers = 0;	/* no modifiers available */
        if (curmodifiers)
                *curmodifiers = 0;
}


static int
IPAQ_Read(MWKEY * kbuf, MWKEYMOD * modifiers, MWSCANCODE * scancode)
{
        int keydown = 0;
        int cc = 0;
        char buf[1];

        cc = read(fd, &buf, 1);

        if (cc < 0) {
                if ((errno != EINTR) && (errno != EAGAIN)
                    && (errno != EINVAL)) {
                        perror("IPAQ KEY");
                        return (-1);
                } else {
                        return (0);
                }
        }
        if (cc == 0)
                return (0);

        /* If the code is less than 127, then we know that */
        /* we have a key down.  Figure out what we've got */

        *modifiers = 0;

        if (*buf < 127) {
                keydown = 1;	/* Key pressed but not released */

                if (*buf > 9)
                        return (0);

                *scancode = scancodes[(int) *buf];
        } else {
                keydown = 2;	/* key released */
                *scancode = *buf;
        }

        switch (*scancode) {
        case IPAQ_SCANCODE_RECORD:
                *kbuf = MWKEY_RECORD;
                break;

        case IPAQ_SCANCODE_CALENDAR:
                *kbuf = MWKEY_APP1;
                break;

        case IPAQ_SCANCODE_CONTACTS:
                *kbuf = MWKEY_APP2;
                break;

        case IPAQ_SCANCODE_Q:
                *kbuf = MWKEY_MENU;
                break;

        case IPAQ_SCANCODE_START:
/*      	*kbuf = MWKEY_LAST;*/
                *kbuf = MWKEY_CANCEL;
                break;

        case IPAQ_SCANCODE_UP:
                *kbuf = MWKEY_UP;
                break;

        case IPAQ_SCANCODE_DOWN:
                *kbuf = MWKEY_DOWN;
                break;

        case IPAQ_SCANCODE_LEFT:
                *kbuf = MWKEY_LEFT;
                break;

        case IPAQ_SCANCODE_RIGHT:
                *kbuf = MWKEY_RIGHT;
                break;

        case IPAQ_SCANCODE_ACTION:
                *kbuf = MWKEY_ENTER;
                break;

        case IPAQ_SCANCODE_SUSPEND:
                *kbuf = MWKEY_SUSPEND;
                break;

        default:
                DPRINTF("Ipaq - Unknown scancode %d\n", *scancode);
                return 0;
        }

        return keydown;
}

All you have to kwnow about The pcmcia

Flameman/pcmcia

About devtools

.....

be inspired

http://www.angstrom-distribution.org/

http://www.hamster.dk/~purple/robot/iBOT/weblog/

Handhelds/PDAs

  1. Familiar (iPAQ)

http://familiar.handhelds.org/ http://freshmeat.net/projects/familiar/ The Familiar Project is composed of a group of loosely knit developers all contributing to creating the next generation of PDA OS. Currently, most development time is geared towards producing a stable, and full featured Linux distribution for the Compaq iPAQ h3600-series of handheld computers, as well as apps to run on top of the distribution. Familiar v0.5.3 was released July 11, 2002. Familiar v0.8.2 was released April 13, 2005. Familiar v0.8.4 was released August 20, 2006.

  1. Gentoo For Zaurus

http://gentooforzaurus.opensistemas.com/ http://www.opensistemas.com/Gentoo_for_Zaurus.715.0.html http://freshmeat.net/projects/gentooforzaurus/ Gentoo For Zaurus is a port of the Gentoo Distribution to the Zaurus PDA, based on Cacko X11 Rom and The Emerde Project. It can be mounted over NFS so no changes to a current configuration are needed. It includes a native gcc environment for ARM, the zgcc-3.3.1 cross compiler for the main PC with distcc configured so that the main PC does the actual compiling, and X11 for testing applications. The first public release was version 0.1.1, dated January 6, 2004. Version 0.2.2 was released February 2, 2004.