Difference between revisions of "LeapFrog Pollux Platform: DFTPdevice"

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Work in progress, just jotting down notes currently.
+
DFTPdevice is a custom server LeapFrog includes with the [[Leapster_Explorer|Explorer]] and [[LeapPad_Explorer | LeapPad]]. This is the main interface between LFConnect, and these devices. DFTPdevice seems loosely based on an FTP server, while including customized features for the purposes of updating the firmware, and a general maintenance.
  
DFTPdevice is an FTP like server that runs on both the [[Leapster_Explorer|Explorer]] and [[LeapPad_Explorer | LeapPad]]. For these devices, this is what [[LeapFrog_Pollux_Platform:_OpenLFConnect |OpenLFConnect]] connects to them with.
+
== Versions ==
== DFTP Device ==
+
There are currently 2 versions of DFTPdevice, 1.12, mostly used in Surgeon, and 1.8 for firmware. The Explorer and LeapPad version, while containing the same version number, do seem to differ, most notably in that if you disconnect from the Explorer version it reboots, while the LeapPad version goes back to broadcasting its address, waiting for another connection.
Connecting.
+
  
Open port 5000
 
send ETH command
 
Open port 5001
 
  
When device starts up port 5000 is open, once you make a connection, you need to send the ETH command.
+
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0"
Then port 5001 opens up.
+
!colspan="3"|Explorer
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
!Type
 +
!Language
 +
!DFTP Version
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|Firmware
 +
|English
 +
|1.8
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|Firmware
 +
|French
 +
|1.8
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|Surgeon
 +
|English
 +
|1.12
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|Surgeon
 +
|French
 +
|1.8
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0"
 +
!colspan="3"|LeapPad
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
!Type
 +
!Language
 +
!DFTP Version
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|Firmware
 +
|English
 +
|1.8
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|Surgeon
 +
|English
 +
|1.12
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
== Connection ==
 +
When the device starts it opens port 5000, once you make a socket connection, you then need to send the ETH command and wait a second or two. The device then opens up a socket to port 5001, make your second connection to this port, and you can then start communicating with it.
  
 
5000 is the port you send commands to.
 
5000 is the port you send commands to.
Line 16: Line 64:
 
5001 is the port you read the responses from.
 
5001 is the port you read the responses from.
  
== DFTP Command List ==
+
 
 +
== Response Codes ==
 +
=== Success ===
 +
The success code is sent for most commands to signify everything went okay. Will not be sent for data transfers, except on the 101 EOF packet.
 +
 
 +
'''200 OK''''
 +
 
 +
=== Data Transfer ===
 +
File transfer ACK. This is returned when the device is receiving data from an upload, it also needs to be send when downloading from it. The number seems to be the size of the last amount of data read.
 +
 
 +
'''100''' ACK <num>
 +
 
 +
EOF is the marker to signify all data has been sent, and to stop expecting it. When receiving data you need to check for this packet, and when uploading data you need to send it when finished.
 +
 
 +
'''101''' EOF
 +
 
 +
=== Errors ===
 +
Server errors generate a response back that start with 5xx and then the error text.
 +
 
 +
'''500''' Command not found
 +
 
 +
'''504''' Unknown Setting
 +
 
 +
== Command List ==
 
The command list is fairly undocumented, there is a few listed in the sources, but most will be discovered by other means, like using Wireshark. This is the list so far.
 
The command list is fairly undocumented, there is a few listed in the sources, but most will be discovered by other means, like using Wireshark. This is the list so far.
  
Line 22: Line 93:
 
  socket.send('LIST /path/to\x00')
 
  socket.send('LIST /path/to\x00')
  
In OpenLFConnect there is a special command send. It allows you to send any command you like, the 0x00 is appended for you, otherwise its all raw read/write. Obviously STOR and RETR won't work with it, but the rest you can play around with.
+
In OpenLFConnect there is a special command send. It allows you to send any command you like, the 0x00 is appended for you, otherwise its all raw read/write. Obviously STOR, RETR, RUN won't work with it, but the rest you can play around with.
 
  remote>send LIST /path/to
 
  remote>send LIST /path/to
  
 
Some commands are Surgeon only.
 
Some commands are Surgeon only.
  
'''Surgeon Only'''
+
=== Surgeon Only ===
 +
 
 
'''DFTP Version 1.12'''
 
'''DFTP Version 1.12'''
 +
  
 
'''GETS MFG_LOCALE'''
 
'''GETS MFG_LOCALE'''
 +
 
Returns:
 
Returns:
  
 
MFG_LOCALE=""
 
MFG_LOCALE=""
  
'''SETS MOUNTPATIENT=2 or 0'''
+
 
 +
'''SETS MOUNTPATIENT=0,1, or 2'''
 +
 
 
Returns:
 
Returns:
  
 
200 OK
 
200 OK
  
Action: 2 mounts patient-rfs 0 ?
+
Action:  
 +
 
 +
0 Unmounts both
 +
 
 +
1 Mounts Bulk and Rootfs
 +
 
 +
2 Mounts Rootfs
  
  
 
'''GETS METAINFS'''
 
'''GETS METAINFS'''
 +
 
Returns:
 
Returns:
  
 
METAINFS=/tmp/metainfs
 
METAINFS=/tmp/metainfs
  
 
+
=== Universal ===
 
+
'''Universal'''
+
  
 
'''ETH <host ip> 1383'''
 
'''ETH <host ip> 1383'''
  
Action: Something with establishing a connection.
+
Action: Has to do with establishing a connection.
 +
 
 +
Must be sent before opening the second port.
  
must be sent before opening the second port.
 
  
 
'''LIST /path/to'''
 
'''LIST /path/to'''
 +
 
Returns:
 
Returns:
  
<directory path> list 200 OK
+
<directory path> list
 +
 
 +
200 OK
  
  
 
'''STAT /path/to'''
 
'''STAT /path/to'''
 +
 
Returns:  
 
Returns:  
  
Line 75: Line 161:
  
 
'''INFO'''
 
'''INFO'''
 +
 
Returns:
 
Returns:
  
Line 85: Line 172:
  
 
'''GETS BATTERYLEVEL'''
 
'''GETS BATTERYLEVEL'''
 +
 
Returns:
 
Returns:
  
Line 90: Line 178:
  
 
200 OK
 
200 OK
 +
 +
Note: number/1000=volts
  
  
 
'''GETS BATTERYSTATUS'''
 
'''GETS BATTERYSTATUS'''
 +
 
Returns:
 
Returns:
  
Line 101: Line 192:
  
 
'''STOR /path/to'''
 
'''STOR /path/to'''
 +
 
Action: Initiate file upload.
 
Action: Initiate file upload.
 +
 
Next: Send file data till EOF then send 101 EOF.
 
Next: Send file data till EOF then send 101 EOF.
 +
 
Device responds with a lot of 100 ACK: <number> (Seems to be last amount of len(data) received.)
 
Device responds with a lot of 100 ACK: <number> (Seems to be last amount of len(data) received.)
  
 
'''101 EOF'''
 
'''101 EOF'''
 +
 
Returns:
 
Returns:
  
Line 112: Line 207:
 
Action: Ends STOR data transfer
 
Action: Ends STOR data transfer
  
Notes:Must flush recv buffer first
+
Notes:Must flush receive buffer first
  
  
Line 125: Line 220:
  
 
'''RM /path/to'''
 
'''RM /path/to'''
 +
 
Returns:
 
Returns:
  
Line 133: Line 229:
  
 
'''RMD <path>'''
 
'''RMD <path>'''
 +
 
Returns:
 
Returns:
  
Line 141: Line 238:
  
 
'''IPKG'''
 
'''IPKG'''
 +
 
Action:?
 
Action:?
  
Line 146: Line 244:
  
  
'''SIZE /path/to''' Returns:
+
'''SIZE /path/to'''
 +
 
 +
Returns:
  
 
a number, that doesn't seem to make sense
 
a number, that doesn't seem to make sense
Line 152: Line 252:
  
 
'''SETS DATETIME=20120126083030'''
 
'''SETS DATETIME=20120126083030'''
 +
 
Returns:
 
Returns:
  
Line 161: Line 262:
  
 
'''GETS DATETIME'''
 
'''GETS DATETIME'''
 +
 
Returns:
 
Returns:
  
Line 167: Line 269:
  
 
'''GETS TOTALSPACE'''
 
'''GETS TOTALSPACE'''
 +
 
Returns:
 
Returns:
  
Line 175: Line 278:
  
 
'''GETS FREESPACE'''
 
'''GETS FREESPACE'''
 +
 
Returns:
 
Returns:
  
Line 180: Line 284:
  
 
'''GETS SERIAL'''
 
'''GETS SERIAL'''
 +
 
Returns:
 
Returns:
  
 
SERIAL="XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX"
 
SERIAL="XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX"
  
Untested
+
Note: This is the serial number of the device.
  
 
'''RUN'''
 
'''RUN'''
Line 192: Line 297:
 
Next: Send data then 101 EOF
 
Next: Send data then 101 EOF
  
Note: Make sure to remove any \r line ends will cause an error otherwise.
+
Note: Make sure to remove any \r line ends as it will cause an error.
 +
 
 +
Example:
 +
#!/bin/sh
 +
/etc/init.d/telnet start
 +
 
 +
Would start the telnet client.
  
  
Line 202: Line 313:
 
200 OK
 
200 OK
  
Note: seems to return nothing just after script is ran
+
Note: If script is still running returns 1
  
  
=== Reboot Sequences ===
+
=== Combination Commands ===
 
'''Disconnect sequence'''
 
'''Disconnect sequence'''
  
Line 211: Line 322:
  
 
DCON
 
DCON
 
  
  
Line 230: Line 340:
  
 
DCON
 
DCON
 +
 +
 +
== Firmware Updates ==
 +
DFTP's main purpose is for Firmware updating by LFConnect. Basically there is a set of special folders created on the device by dftpdevice, which are uploaded to. This triggers the upload to be written to the NAND, instead of to Surgeon's RAM file system. For the Explorer DFTP is used exclusively for this purpose. While the LeapPad uses a program called Fuse-Flasher that can be found in [source]/packages.
 +
 +
=== Explorer ===
 +
The Explorer uses a combination of the file names, and a file system map file on the device itself, to allow dftpdevice to successfully update the firmware.
 +
 +
==== Firmware File Names ====
 +
The firmware file names are used by dftpdevice to figure out where to flash the data to on NAND. This will write the data to that location regardless of the fs map. But will cause issues with UBI images if not coordinated with the map. 131072 is the PACKETSIZE returned in the INFO command.
 +
 +
Format: [NAND Address],[Partition Size/131072],[Filename]
 +
 +
Example:
 +
1048576,8,FIRST.32.rle
 +
2097152,64,kernel.cbf
 +
10485760,688,erootfs.ubi
 +
100663296,15616
 +
 +
 +
==== Device FS Map ====
 +
 +
On the device itself there is a list of files in /var with extension .fs. These numbers are used in the creation of the mtd/ubi devices required for mounting and flashing. To figure out which version your firmware is using, take a look at /etc/init.d/recover-mounts. In that script there is a variable fs, near the beginning, that shows which file to use.
 +
 +
Format: [NAND Address] [Partition Size] [Filename]
 +
 +
Example:
 +
0x00000000 0x00100000 payload/emerald-boot.bin
 +
0x00100000 0x00100000 payload/FIRST.32.rle
 +
0x00200000 0x00800000 payload/kernel.cbf
 +
0x00a00000 0x05600000 payload/erootfs.ubi
 +
0x06000000 0x7a000000 payload/bulk.ubi
 +
 +
==== Altering Partitions ====
 +
To change the partitions, a few things need to be accomplished before configuring dftpdevice. The kernel has the partitions hard coded into it, those will need to be changed. And if you move the kernel, Emerald Boot will need to be compiled with the new kernel address and size.
 +
 +
Once those are taken care of, you will need to calculate the file names, and create the new .fs file. From my experience the .fs is most critical for UBI, as once Emerald Boot was compiled with the proper kernel address, it loaded fine. But for UBI there are certain steps required for flashing to NAND, like erase counter management and it's lack of OOB usage, that need to be dealt with. dftpdevice will write the UBI image where ever the file name numbers tell it too, but it will not be usable by the kernel. If you get an error 22 manually mounting it, this is probably the reason. An MTD and UBI device needs to be created for proper flashing, which dftpdevice creates the MTD devices using the .fs file information. For more application of this, look in /etc/init.d/recovery-mounts.

Revision as of 22:13, 12 November 2012

DFTPdevice is a custom server LeapFrog includes with the Explorer and LeapPad. This is the main interface between LFConnect, and these devices. DFTPdevice seems loosely based on an FTP server, while including customized features for the purposes of updating the firmware, and a general maintenance.

Versions

There are currently 2 versions of DFTPdevice, 1.12, mostly used in Surgeon, and 1.8 for firmware. The Explorer and LeapPad version, while containing the same version number, do seem to differ, most notably in that if you disconnect from the Explorer version it reboots, while the LeapPad version goes back to broadcasting its address, waiting for another connection.


Explorer
Type Language DFTP Version
Firmware English 1.8
Firmware French 1.8
Surgeon English 1.12
Surgeon French 1.8


LeapPad
Type Language DFTP Version
Firmware English 1.8
Surgeon English 1.12


Connection

When the device starts it opens port 5000, once you make a socket connection, you then need to send the ETH command and wait a second or two. The device then opens up a socket to port 5001, make your second connection to this port, and you can then start communicating with it.

5000 is the port you send commands to.

5001 is the port you read the responses from.


Response Codes

Success

The success code is sent for most commands to signify everything went okay. Will not be sent for data transfers, except on the 101 EOF packet.

200 OK'

Data Transfer

File transfer ACK. This is returned when the device is receiving data from an upload, it also needs to be send when downloading from it. The number seems to be the size of the last amount of data read.

100 ACK <num>

EOF is the marker to signify all data has been sent, and to stop expecting it. When receiving data you need to check for this packet, and when uploading data you need to send it when finished.

101 EOF

Errors

Server errors generate a response back that start with 5xx and then the error text.

500 Command not found

504 Unknown Setting

Command List

The command list is fairly undocumented, there is a few listed in the sources, but most will be discovered by other means, like using Wireshark. This is the list so far.

All commands must have a trailing 0x00 attached. In python it would look something like.

socket.send('LIST /path/to\x00')

In OpenLFConnect there is a special command send. It allows you to send any command you like, the 0x00 is appended for you, otherwise its all raw read/write. Obviously STOR, RETR, RUN won't work with it, but the rest you can play around with.

remote>send LIST /path/to

Some commands are Surgeon only.

Surgeon Only

DFTP Version 1.12


GETS MFG_LOCALE

Returns:

MFG_LOCALE=""


SETS MOUNTPATIENT=0,1, or 2

Returns:

200 OK

Action:

0 Unmounts both

1 Mounts Bulk and Rootfs

2 Mounts Rootfs


GETS METAINFS

Returns:

METAINFS=/tmp/metainfs

Universal

ETH <host ip> 1383

Action: Has to do with establishing a connection.

Must be sent before opening the second port.


LIST /path/to

Returns:

<directory path> list

200 OK


STAT /path/to

Returns:

D 00000000 755 root:root

200 OK

Notes: Seems to not always work as expected.


INFO

Returns:

PACKETSIZE=131072

VERSION=1.12

200 OK


GETS BATTERYLEVEL

Returns:

BATTERYLEVEL=<number>

200 OK

Note: number/1000=volts


GETS BATTERYSTATUS

Returns:

BATTERYSTATUS=1

200 OK


STOR /path/to

Action: Initiate file upload.

Next: Send file data till EOF then send 101 EOF.

Device responds with a lot of 100 ACK: <number> (Seems to be last amount of len(data) received.)

101 EOF

Returns:

200 OK

Action: Ends STOR data transfer

Notes:Must flush receive buffer first


RETR /path/to

Action: Downloads file.

Next: Read socket buffer for data and send back 100 ACK: <number> (Seems to be last amount of len(data) received.)

Ends: When 101 EOF is received.


RM /path/to

Returns:

200 OK

Action: Removes file


RMD <path>

Returns:

200 OK

Action:Removes directory


IPKG

Action:?

Notes:Found listed in source code, does something with firmware.


SIZE /path/to

Returns:

a number, that doesn't seem to make sense


SETS DATETIME=20120126083030

Returns:

200 OK

Action: Sets time.


GETS DATETIME

Returns:

DATETIME=20120126083014 200 OK


GETS TOTALSPACE

Returns:

TOTALSPACE=397307904

200 OK


GETS FREESPACE

Returns:

FREESPACE=265678848

GETS SERIAL

Returns:

SERIAL="XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX"

Note: This is the serial number of the device.

RUN

Action: Runs shell script

Next: Send data then 101 EOF

Note: Make sure to remove any \r line ends as it will cause an error.

Example:

#!/bin/sh
/etc/init.d/telnet start

Would start the telnet client.


GETS SCRIPT_RUNNING Returns:

SCRIPT_RUNNING=0

200 OK

Note: If script is still running returns 1


Combination Commands

Disconnect sequence

NOOP

DCON


Reboot after update or in general

RSET

NOOP

DCON


Reboot to usb mode

UPD8

NOOP

DCON


Firmware Updates

DFTP's main purpose is for Firmware updating by LFConnect. Basically there is a set of special folders created on the device by dftpdevice, which are uploaded to. This triggers the upload to be written to the NAND, instead of to Surgeon's RAM file system. For the Explorer DFTP is used exclusively for this purpose. While the LeapPad uses a program called Fuse-Flasher that can be found in [source]/packages.

Explorer

The Explorer uses a combination of the file names, and a file system map file on the device itself, to allow dftpdevice to successfully update the firmware.

Firmware File Names

The firmware file names are used by dftpdevice to figure out where to flash the data to on NAND. This will write the data to that location regardless of the fs map. But will cause issues with UBI images if not coordinated with the map. 131072 is the PACKETSIZE returned in the INFO command.

Format: [NAND Address],[Partition Size/131072],[Filename]

Example:

1048576,8,FIRST.32.rle
2097152,64,kernel.cbf
10485760,688,erootfs.ubi
100663296,15616


Device FS Map

On the device itself there is a list of files in /var with extension .fs. These numbers are used in the creation of the mtd/ubi devices required for mounting and flashing. To figure out which version your firmware is using, take a look at /etc/init.d/recover-mounts. In that script there is a variable fs, near the beginning, that shows which file to use.

Format: [NAND Address] [Partition Size] [Filename]

Example:

0x00000000 0x00100000 payload/emerald-boot.bin
0x00100000 0x00100000 payload/FIRST.32.rle
0x00200000 0x00800000 payload/kernel.cbf
0x00a00000 0x05600000 payload/erootfs.ubi
0x06000000 0x7a000000 payload/bulk.ubi

Altering Partitions

To change the partitions, a few things need to be accomplished before configuring dftpdevice. The kernel has the partitions hard coded into it, those will need to be changed. And if you move the kernel, Emerald Boot will need to be compiled with the new kernel address and size.

Once those are taken care of, you will need to calculate the file names, and create the new .fs file. From my experience the .fs is most critical for UBI, as once Emerald Boot was compiled with the proper kernel address, it loaded fine. But for UBI there are certain steps required for flashing to NAND, like erase counter management and it's lack of OOB usage, that need to be dealt with. dftpdevice will write the UBI image where ever the file name numbers tell it too, but it will not be usable by the kernel. If you get an error 22 manually mounting it, this is probably the reason. An MTD and UBI device needs to be created for proper flashing, which dftpdevice creates the MTD devices using the .fs file information. For more application of this, look in /etc/init.d/recovery-mounts.