Difference between revisions of "RPi Kernel Compilation"

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= From the Raspberry pi =
 
= From the Raspberry pi =
 
== Firmware ==
 
== Firmware ==
 +
Install git first, as below in [[RPi Kernel Compilation#Kernel compilation|Kernel compilation]].
 
  cd /opt
 
  cd /opt
 
  git clone --depth 1 git://github.com/raspberrypi/firmware.git
 
  git clone --depth 1 git://github.com/raspberrypi/firmware.git
Line 25: Line 26:
 
  cd linux
 
  cd linux
 
  zcat /proc/config.gz > .config
 
  zcat /proc/config.gz > .config
  #optional#make menuconfig
+
  #optional#make menuconfig # i.e. if you want to alter the configuration. You'll need to first run # apt-get install libncurses5-dev
 
  tmux new -s make
 
  tmux new -s make
 
  nice make; nice make modules
 
  nice make; nice make modules
 
  [Ctrl]+[B],[D]
 
  [Ctrl]+[B],[D]
  ############## … 5 hours later ...
+
  ##############… 5 to 11 hours later…
 
  tmux a -t m
 
  tmux a -t m
 
  [Ctrl]+[D]
 
  [Ctrl]+[D]
Line 37: Line 38:
 
  rm -r raspberrypi
 
  rm -r raspberrypi
 
  shutdown -r now;
 
  shutdown -r now;
 +
 
= From a foreign machine =
 
= From a foreign machine =
 
== Firmware ==
 
== Firmware ==
Line 48: Line 50:
 
  cd boot
 
  cd boot
 
  scp arm128_start.elf arm192_start.elf arm224_start.elf bootcode.bin loader.bin start.elf <user>@<host>:/boot/
 
  scp arm128_start.elf arm192_start.elf arm224_start.elf bootcode.bin loader.bin start.elf <user>@<host>:/boot/
== Kernel compilation ==
+
== Kernel cross compilation ==
You can use the "-j" flag to improve compilation time. If you have a dual core machine you can use "-j 3", for a quad core machine you can use "-j 6", and so on.
+
You can use the "-j" flag to improve compilation time. If you have a dual core machine you can use "-j 3", for a quad core machine you can use "-j 6", and so on. Also if your trying to rebuild an existing kernel, the proper .config file can be obtained from the raspberry pi using zcat /proc/config.gz > .config
=== Ubunt ===
+
=== Ubuntu ===
 
  apt-get install git gcc-arm-linux-gnueabi make ncurses-dev
 
  apt-get install git gcc-arm-linux-gnueabi make ncurses-dev
 
  cd /opt
 
  cd /opt
Line 61: Line 63:
 
  #optional#make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/usr/bin/arm-linux-gnueabi- menuconfig
 
  #optional#make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/usr/bin/arm-linux-gnueabi- menuconfig
 
  make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/usr/bin/arm-linux-gnueabi- -k
 
  make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/usr/bin/arm-linux-gnueabi- -k
 +
 
=== Gentoo Linux ===
 
=== Gentoo Linux ===
 
  crossdev -S -v -t arm-unknown-linux-gnueabi
 
  crossdev -S -v -t arm-unknown-linux-gnueabi
Line 68: Line 71:
 
  cd linux
 
  cd linux
 
  cp arch/arm/configs/bcmrpi_cutdown_defconfig .config
 
  cp arch/arm/configs/bcmrpi_cutdown_defconfig .config
  make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/usr/bin/arm-linux-gnueabi- oldconfig
+
  make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/usr/bin/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabi- oldconfig
  #optional#make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/usr/bin/arm-linux-gnueabi- menuconfig
+
  #optional#make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/usr/bin/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabi- menuconfig
  make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/usr/bin/arm-linux-gnueabi- -k
+
  make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/usr/bin/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabi- -k
  
 
crossdev should create a cross-toolchain using the latest stable versions of the required packages.  If it fails, you can specify exact versions by removing the "-S" flag and adding the "--b", "--g", "--k" and "--l" flags.
 
crossdev should create a cross-toolchain using the latest stable versions of the required packages.  If it fails, you can specify exact versions by removing the "-S" flag and adding the "--b", "--g", "--k" and "--l" flags.
Line 91: Line 94:
 
=== OS X ===
 
=== OS X ===
 
The Kernel source requires a case-sensitive filesystem. If you do not have a HFS+ Case-sensitive partition that can be used, create a disk image with the appropriate format.
 
The Kernel source requires a case-sensitive filesystem. If you do not have a HFS+ Case-sensitive partition that can be used, create a disk image with the appropriate format.
Ensure latest Xcode and command line tools are installed from [http://developer.apple.com/downloads Apple Developer Connection]  
+
Ensure latest Xcode and command line tools are installed from [http://developer.apple.com/downloads Apple Developer Connection]
==== Yagarto ====
+
Downoad and install an GNU ARM toolchain such as [http://www.yagarto.de/#downloadmac yagarto].
+
 
==== Macports ====
 
==== Macports ====
[http://guide.macports.org/#installing macports]
+
Install [http://guide.macports.org/#installing macports]
 
  port install arm-none-eabi-gcc
 
  port install arm-none-eabi-gcc
 
  port install arm-none-eabi-binutils
 
  port install arm-none-eabi-binutils
==== Common ====
 
 
  cd /opt
 
  cd /opt
 
  mkdir raspberrypi
 
  mkdir raspberrypi
Line 105: Line 105:
 
  cd linux
 
  cd linux
 
  cp arch/arm/configs/bcmrpi_cutdown_defconfig .config
 
  cp arch/arm/configs/bcmrpi_cutdown_defconfig .config
==== Yagarto ====
 
make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/path/to/yagarto/bin/arm-none-eabi- oldconfig
 
make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/path/to/yagarto/bin/arm-none-eabi- -k
 
==== Macports ====
 
 
  make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/opt/local/bin/arm-none-eabi- oldconfig
 
  make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/opt/local/bin/arm-none-eabi- oldconfig
 
  make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/opt/local/bin/arm-none-eabi- -k
 
  make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/opt/local/bin/arm-none-eabi- -k
 
'''If you get an error message that elf.h is missing'''
 
'''If you get an error message that elf.h is missing'''
 
  sudo port install libelf && sudo ln -s /opt/local/include/libelf /usr/include/libelf
 
  sudo port install libelf && sudo ln -s /opt/local/include/libelf /usr/include/libelf
copy [http://opensource.apple.com/source/dtrace/dtrace-48/sys/elf.h?txt elf.h] and [http://opensource.apple.com/source/dtrace/dtrace-48/sys/elftypes.h?txt elftypes.h] to /usr/include
+
From opensource.apple.com, download and copy [http://opensource.apple.com/source/dtrace/dtrace-48/sys/elf.h?txt elf.h] and [http://opensource.apple.com/source/dtrace/dtrace-48/sys/elftypes.h?txt elftypes.h] to /usr/include
 +
 
 
Edit elf.h and add
 
Edit elf.h and add
 
  #define R_386_NONE        0
 
  #define R_386_NONE        0
Line 133: Line 130:
 
to
 
to
 
  NOSTDINC_FLAGS += -nostdinc -isystem $(shell $(CC) -print-file-name=include) -Dlinux
 
  NOSTDINC_FLAGS += -nostdinc -isystem $(shell $(CC) -print-file-name=include) -Dlinux
 +
 +
==== Yagarto ====
 +
Downoad and install an GNU ARM toolchain such as [http://www.yagarto.de/#downloadmac yagarto].
 +
cd /opt
 +
mkdir raspberrypi
 +
cd raspberrypi
 +
git clone git://github.com/raspberrypi/linux.git
 +
cd linux
 +
cp arch/arm/configs/bcmrpi_cutdown_defconfig .config
 +
make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/path/to/yagarto/bin/arm-none-eabi- oldconfig
 +
make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/path/to/yagarto/bin/arm-none-eabi- -k
 +
 
== Transferring The Build ==
 
== Transferring The Build ==
 
Then you have to transfer this img file to the /boot directory and install the compiled modules. Unfortunately the compiled modules are not in a single place, there are two options of installing them.
 
Then you have to transfer this img file to the /boot directory and install the compiled modules. Unfortunately the compiled modules are not in a single place, there are two options of installing them.
Line 141: Line 150:
 
  sshfs <user>@<host>:<path/to/linux> linux
 
  sshfs <user>@<host>:<path/to/linux> linux
 
  cd linux
 
  cd linux
make install
 
 
  make modules_install
 
  make modules_install
 
If you got "Permission denied" when doing <code>cd linux</code>, try:
 
If you got "Permission denied" when doing <code>cd linux</code>, try:
Line 152: Line 160:
 
  scp -r /tmp/modules/* <user>@<host>://lib/modules/
 
  scp -r /tmp/modules/* <user>@<host>://lib/modules/
 
Once you've done those two steps, you are ready to put the SD card in and try booting your new system!
 
Once you've done those two steps, you are ready to put the SD card in and try booting your new system!
 +
 +
Note: if /tmp/modules contains symlinks they will be followed and if they are recursive this is a problem. A safer way to copy is to use tar:
 +
  cd /tmp/modules/lib/modules; tar cJf - * | ssh <user>@<host> '(cd /lib/modules; tar xJf -)'
 +
 
=References=  
 
=References=  
 
<references/>
 
<references/>
 
{{Template:Raspberry Pi}}
 
{{Template:Raspberry Pi}}
 
[[Category:RaspberryPi]]
 
[[Category:RaspberryPi]]

Revision as of 20:23, 15 October 2012

Back to the Hub.


Software & Distributions:

Software - an overview.

Distributions - operating systems and development environments for the Raspberry Pi.

Kernel Compilation - advice on compiling a kernel.

Performance - measures of the Raspberry Pi's performance.

Programming - programming languages that might be used on the Raspberry Pi.

Overview

First, you are going to get and build the linux kernel and its modules using a suitable compiler (a "cross-compiler" if you aren't building it on the same hardware you will be running it on) and then you are going to create a kernel image from the uncompressed kernel (Image) to place on the sd, along with the modules you build alongside it.

From the Raspberry pi

Firmware

Install git first, as below in Kernel compilation.

cd /opt
git clone --depth 1 git://github.com/raspberrypi/firmware.git
cd firmware/boot
cp arm128_start.elf arm192_start.elf arm224_start.elf bootcode.bin loader.bin start.elf /boot/
cd /opt
rm -r firmware

Kernel compilation

Debian pre-build

apt-get update
apt-get -y dist-upgrade
apt-get -y install git gcc make tmux

Arch Linux pre-build

pacman -Syu
pacman -S git gcc make tmux

Common

cd /opt
mkdir raspberrypi
cd raspberrypi
git clone --depth 1 git://github.com/raspberrypi/linux.git
cd linux
zcat /proc/config.gz > .config
#optional#make menuconfig # i.e. if you want to alter the configuration. You'll need to first run # apt-get install libncurses5-dev
tmux new -s make
nice make; nice make modules
[Ctrl]+[B],[D]
##############… 5 to 11 hours later…
tmux a -t m
[Ctrl]+[D]
cp arch/arm/boot/Image /boot/kernel.img
make ARCH=arm modules_install INSTALL_MOD_PATH=/
cd /opt
rm -r raspberrypi
shutdown -r now;

From a foreign machine

Firmware

cd /opt
git clone git://github.com/raspberrypi/firmware.git
cd firmware/boot
scp arm128_start.elf arm192_start.elf arm224_start.elf bootcode.bin loader.bin start.elf <user>@<host>:/boot/

After the first time:

cd /opt/firmware
git pull
cd boot
scp arm128_start.elf arm192_start.elf arm224_start.elf bootcode.bin loader.bin start.elf <user>@<host>:/boot/

Kernel cross compilation

You can use the "-j" flag to improve compilation time. If you have a dual core machine you can use "-j 3", for a quad core machine you can use "-j 6", and so on. Also if your trying to rebuild an existing kernel, the proper .config file can be obtained from the raspberry pi using zcat /proc/config.gz > .config

Ubuntu

apt-get install git gcc-arm-linux-gnueabi make ncurses-dev
cd /opt
mkdir raspberrypi
cd raspberrypi 
git clone git://github.com/raspberrypi/linux.git
cd linux
cp arch/arm/configs/bcmrpi_cutdown_defconfig .config
make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/usr/bin/arm-linux-gnueabi- oldconfig
#optional#make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/usr/bin/arm-linux-gnueabi- menuconfig
make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/usr/bin/arm-linux-gnueabi- -k

Gentoo Linux

crossdev -S -v -t arm-unknown-linux-gnueabi
mkdir raspberrypi
cd raspberrypi 
git clone git://github.com/raspberrypi/linux.git
cd linux
cp arch/arm/configs/bcmrpi_cutdown_defconfig .config
make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/usr/bin/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabi- oldconfig
#optional#make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/usr/bin/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabi- menuconfig
make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/usr/bin/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabi- -k

crossdev should create a cross-toolchain using the latest stable versions of the required packages. If it fails, you can specify exact versions by removing the "-S" flag and adding the "--b", "--g", "--k" and "--l" flags.

On 2012-05-06, cross -S -v -A gnueabi arm works just fine

Arch Linux

pacman -S git
yaourt -S arm-linux-gnueabi-gcc
cd /opt
mkdir raspberrypi
cd raspberrypi 
git clone git://github.com/raspberrypi/linux.git
cd linux
cp arch/arm/configs/bcmrpi_cutdown_defconfig .config
make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/usr/bin/arm-linux-gnueabi- oldconfig
#optional#make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/usr/bin/arm-linux-gnueabi- menuconfig
make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/usr/bin/arm-linux-gnueabi- -k

OS X

The Kernel source requires a case-sensitive filesystem. If you do not have a HFS+ Case-sensitive partition that can be used, create a disk image with the appropriate format. Ensure latest Xcode and command line tools are installed from Apple Developer Connection

Macports

Install macports

port install arm-none-eabi-gcc
port install arm-none-eabi-binutils
cd /opt
mkdir raspberrypi
cd raspberrypi 
git clone git://github.com/raspberrypi/linux.git
cd linux
cp arch/arm/configs/bcmrpi_cutdown_defconfig .config
make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/opt/local/bin/arm-none-eabi- oldconfig
make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/opt/local/bin/arm-none-eabi- -k

If you get an error message that elf.h is missing

sudo port install libelf && sudo ln -s /opt/local/include/libelf /usr/include/libelf

From opensource.apple.com, download and copy elf.h and elftypes.h to /usr/include

Edit elf.h and add

#define R_386_NONE        0
#define R_386_32          1
#define R_386_PC32        2
#define R_ARM_NONE        0
#define R_ARM_PC24        1
#define R_ARM_ABS32       2
#define R_MIPS_NONE       0
#define R_MIPS_16         1
#define R_MIPS_32         2
#define R_MIPS_REL32      3
#define R_MIPS_26         4
#define R_MIPS_HI16       5
#define R_MIPS_LO16       6

If you get a "SEGMENT_SIZE is undeclared" error open the Makefile and change the line:

NOSTDINC_FLAGS += -nostdinc -isystem $(shell $(CC) -print-file-name=include)

to

NOSTDINC_FLAGS += -nostdinc -isystem $(shell $(CC) -print-file-name=include) -Dlinux

Yagarto

Downoad and install an GNU ARM toolchain such as yagarto.

cd /opt
mkdir raspberrypi
cd raspberrypi 
git clone git://github.com/raspberrypi/linux.git
cd linux
cp arch/arm/configs/bcmrpi_cutdown_defconfig .config
make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/path/to/yagarto/bin/arm-none-eabi- oldconfig
make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/path/to/yagarto/bin/arm-none-eabi- -k

Transferring The Build

Then you have to transfer this img file to the /boot directory and install the compiled modules. Unfortunately the compiled modules are not in a single place, there are two options of installing them.

Boot your RaspberryPi and mount the linux directory over the network using sshfs:

cd /mnt
mkdir linux
sshfs <user>@<host>:<path/to/linux> linux
cd linux
make modules_install

If you got "Permission denied" when doing cd linux, try:

sudo sh -c "cd linux ; make modules_install"

If that is not an option, you can also install the modules into a temporary folder:

mkdir /tmp/modules
make ARCH=arm modules_install INSTALL_MOD_PATH=/tmp/modules

Now you have to copy the contents of that directory to /lib/modules on the SD card.

scp linux/arch/arm/boot/Image <user>@<host>:/boot/kernel.img
scp -r /tmp/modules/* <user>@<host>://lib/modules/

Once you've done those two steps, you are ready to put the SD card in and try booting your new system!

Note: if /tmp/modules contains symlinks they will be followed and if they are recursive this is a problem. A safer way to copy is to use tar:

 cd /tmp/modules/lib/modules; tar cJf - * | ssh <user>@<host> '(cd /lib/modules; tar xJf -)'

References