Difference between revisions of "Raspberry Pi Kernel Compilation"

From eLinux.org
Jump to: navigation, search
m (Kernel cross compilation)
(Common)
(One intermediate revision by one other user not shown)
Line 30: Line 30:
 
  nice make; nice make modules
 
  nice make; nice make modules
 
  [Ctrl]+[B],[D]
 
  [Ctrl]+[B],[D]
  ##############… 8 to 11 hours later…
+
  ##############… 5 to 11 hours later…
 
  tmux a -t m
 
  tmux a -t m
 
  [Ctrl]+[D]
 
  [Ctrl]+[D]
Line 51: Line 51:
 
  scp arm128_start.elf arm192_start.elf arm224_start.elf bootcode.bin loader.bin start.elf <user>@<host>:/boot/
 
  scp arm128_start.elf arm192_start.elf arm224_start.elf bootcode.bin loader.bin start.elf <user>@<host>:/boot/
 
== Kernel cross compilation ==
 
== Kernel cross compilation ==
You can use the "-j" flag to improve compilation time. If you have a dual core machine you can use "-j 3", for a quad core machine you can use "-j 6", and so on. Also if your trying to rebuild an existing kernel, the proper .config file can be obtianed from the raspberry pi using zcat /proc/config.gz > .config  
+
You can use the "-j" flag to improve compilation time. If you have a dual core machine you can use "-j 3", for a quad core machine you can use "-j 6", and so on. Also if your trying to rebuild an existing kernel, the proper .config file can be obtained from the raspberry pi using zcat /proc/config.gz > .config  
 
=== Ubuntu ===
 
=== Ubuntu ===
 
  apt-get install git gcc-arm-linux-gnueabi make ncurses-dev
 
  apt-get install git gcc-arm-linux-gnueabi make ncurses-dev

Revision as of 20:23, 15 October 2012

Back to the Hub.


Software & Distributions:

Software - an overview.

Distributions - operating systems and development environments for the Raspberry Pi.

Kernel Compilation - advice on compiling a kernel.

Performance - measures of the Raspberry Pi's performance.

Programming - programming languages that might be used on the Raspberry Pi.

Overview

First, you are going to get and build the linux kernel and its modules using a suitable compiler (a "cross-compiler" if you aren't building it on the same hardware you will be running it on) and then you are going to create a kernel image from the uncompressed kernel (Image) to place on the sd, along with the modules you build alongside it.

From the Raspberry pi

Firmware

Install git first, as below in Kernel compilation.

cd /opt
git clone --depth 1 git://github.com/raspberrypi/firmware.git
cd firmware/boot
cp arm128_start.elf arm192_start.elf arm224_start.elf bootcode.bin loader.bin start.elf /boot/
cd /opt
rm -r firmware

Kernel compilation

Debian pre-build

apt-get update
apt-get -y dist-upgrade
apt-get -y install git gcc make tmux

Arch Linux pre-build

pacman -Syu
pacman -S git gcc make tmux

Common

cd /opt
mkdir raspberrypi
cd raspberrypi
git clone --depth 1 git://github.com/raspberrypi/linux.git
cd linux
zcat /proc/config.gz > .config
#optional#make menuconfig # i.e. if you want to alter the configuration. You'll need to first run # apt-get install libncurses5-dev
tmux new -s make
nice make; nice make modules
[Ctrl]+[B],[D]
##############… 5 to 11 hours later…
tmux a -t m
[Ctrl]+[D]
cp arch/arm/boot/Image /boot/kernel.img
make ARCH=arm modules_install INSTALL_MOD_PATH=/
cd /opt
rm -r raspberrypi
shutdown -r now;

From a foreign machine

Firmware

cd /opt
git clone git://github.com/raspberrypi/firmware.git
cd firmware/boot
scp arm128_start.elf arm192_start.elf arm224_start.elf bootcode.bin loader.bin start.elf <user>@<host>:/boot/

After the first time:

cd /opt/firmware
git pull
cd boot
scp arm128_start.elf arm192_start.elf arm224_start.elf bootcode.bin loader.bin start.elf <user>@<host>:/boot/

Kernel cross compilation

You can use the "-j" flag to improve compilation time. If you have a dual core machine you can use "-j 3", for a quad core machine you can use "-j 6", and so on. Also if your trying to rebuild an existing kernel, the proper .config file can be obtained from the raspberry pi using zcat /proc/config.gz > .config

Ubuntu

apt-get install git gcc-arm-linux-gnueabi make ncurses-dev
cd /opt
mkdir raspberrypi
cd raspberrypi 
git clone git://github.com/raspberrypi/linux.git
cd linux
cp arch/arm/configs/bcmrpi_cutdown_defconfig .config
make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/usr/bin/arm-linux-gnueabi- oldconfig
#optional#make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/usr/bin/arm-linux-gnueabi- menuconfig
make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/usr/bin/arm-linux-gnueabi- -k

Gentoo Linux

crossdev -S -v -t arm-unknown-linux-gnueabi
mkdir raspberrypi
cd raspberrypi 
git clone git://github.com/raspberrypi/linux.git
cd linux
cp arch/arm/configs/bcmrpi_cutdown_defconfig .config
make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/usr/bin/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabi- oldconfig
#optional#make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/usr/bin/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabi- menuconfig
make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/usr/bin/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabi- -k

crossdev should create a cross-toolchain using the latest stable versions of the required packages. If it fails, you can specify exact versions by removing the "-S" flag and adding the "--b", "--g", "--k" and "--l" flags.

On 2012-05-06, cross -S -v -A gnueabi arm works just fine

Arch Linux

pacman -S git
yaourt -S arm-linux-gnueabi-gcc
cd /opt
mkdir raspberrypi
cd raspberrypi 
git clone git://github.com/raspberrypi/linux.git
cd linux
cp arch/arm/configs/bcmrpi_cutdown_defconfig .config
make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/usr/bin/arm-linux-gnueabi- oldconfig
#optional#make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/usr/bin/arm-linux-gnueabi- menuconfig
make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/usr/bin/arm-linux-gnueabi- -k

OS X

The Kernel source requires a case-sensitive filesystem. If you do not have a HFS+ Case-sensitive partition that can be used, create a disk image with the appropriate format. Ensure latest Xcode and command line tools are installed from Apple Developer Connection

Macports

Install macports

port install arm-none-eabi-gcc
port install arm-none-eabi-binutils
cd /opt
mkdir raspberrypi
cd raspberrypi 
git clone git://github.com/raspberrypi/linux.git
cd linux
cp arch/arm/configs/bcmrpi_cutdown_defconfig .config
make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/opt/local/bin/arm-none-eabi- oldconfig
make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/opt/local/bin/arm-none-eabi- -k

If you get an error message that elf.h is missing

sudo port install libelf && sudo ln -s /opt/local/include/libelf /usr/include/libelf

From opensource.apple.com, download and copy elf.h and elftypes.h to /usr/include

Edit elf.h and add

#define R_386_NONE        0
#define R_386_32          1
#define R_386_PC32        2
#define R_ARM_NONE        0
#define R_ARM_PC24        1
#define R_ARM_ABS32       2
#define R_MIPS_NONE       0
#define R_MIPS_16         1
#define R_MIPS_32         2
#define R_MIPS_REL32      3
#define R_MIPS_26         4
#define R_MIPS_HI16       5
#define R_MIPS_LO16       6

If you get a "SEGMENT_SIZE is undeclared" error open the Makefile and change the line:

NOSTDINC_FLAGS += -nostdinc -isystem $(shell $(CC) -print-file-name=include)

to

NOSTDINC_FLAGS += -nostdinc -isystem $(shell $(CC) -print-file-name=include) -Dlinux

Yagarto

Downoad and install an GNU ARM toolchain such as yagarto.

cd /opt
mkdir raspberrypi
cd raspberrypi 
git clone git://github.com/raspberrypi/linux.git
cd linux
cp arch/arm/configs/bcmrpi_cutdown_defconfig .config
make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/path/to/yagarto/bin/arm-none-eabi- oldconfig
make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/path/to/yagarto/bin/arm-none-eabi- -k

Transferring The Build

Then you have to transfer this img file to the /boot directory and install the compiled modules. Unfortunately the compiled modules are not in a single place, there are two options of installing them.

Boot your RaspberryPi and mount the linux directory over the network using sshfs:

cd /mnt
mkdir linux
sshfs <user>@<host>:<path/to/linux> linux
cd linux
make modules_install

If you got "Permission denied" when doing cd linux, try:

sudo sh -c "cd linux ; make modules_install"

If that is not an option, you can also install the modules into a temporary folder:

mkdir /tmp/modules
make ARCH=arm modules_install INSTALL_MOD_PATH=/tmp/modules

Now you have to copy the contents of that directory to /lib/modules on the SD card.

scp linux/arch/arm/boot/Image <user>@<host>:/boot/kernel.img
scp -r /tmp/modules/* <user>@<host>://lib/modules/

Once you've done those two steps, you are ready to put the SD card in and try booting your new system!

Note: if /tmp/modules contains symlinks they will be followed and if they are recursive this is a problem. A safer way to copy is to use tar:

 cd /tmp/modules/lib/modules; tar cJf - * | ssh <user>@<host> '(cd /lib/modules; tar xJf -)'

References