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Difference between revisions of "RPi Serial Connection"

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(Windows setup)
(Separate section for level conversion)
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* Connecting to a microcontroller or other peripheral which has a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serial_port serial] interface. This can be useful if you want the Pi to control another device.
 
* Connecting to a microcontroller or other peripheral which has a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serial_port serial] interface. This can be useful if you want the Pi to control another device.
  
== Connection to a PC ==
+
== Connections and signal levels ==
  
'''Note that the Raspberry Pi cannot be wired directly to an RS232 serial port. To do so, some additional electronics are required! '''
+
[[File:Adafruit-connection.jpg|300px|thumb|right|Adafruit serial cable connected to Pi]]
  
A UART is available in the Broadcom SoC, and its RxD and TxD lines are available on the [[RPi_Low-level_peripherals|GPIO header]]. However, these use 0 and 3.3V logic levels, not the +/-12V used by [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RS-232 RS-232] serial ports. If you wish to connect one of these, you need a board or adapter to convert the signal levels. See [http://codeandlife.com/2012/07/01/raspberry-pi-serial-console-with-max3232cpe/ this tutorial] for one example on how to build a 3.3V to RS-232 level converter with a breadboard, a MAX3232CPE IC and five 0.1 uF capacitors.  
+
The Raspberry Pi serial port consists of two signals (a 'transmit' signal, TxD and a 'receive' signal RxD) made available on the [[RPi_Low-level_peripherals|GPIO header]]. To connect to another serial device, you connect the 'transmit' of one to the 'receive' of the other, and vice versa. You will also need to connect the Ground pins of the two devices together.
  
If your PC has a USB port, it is possible to connect a USB-to-serial cable which uses 3.3V logic levels (e.g. the [http://www.adafruit.com/products/954 Adafruit 954] or the [http://www.ftdichip.com/Products/Cables/RPi.htm FTDI TTL-232R-RPI] cables) directly to the GPIO pins.
+
The Broadcom chip at the heart of the Pi uses 0 and 3.3V logic levels, not the +/-12V used by [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RS-232 RS-232] serial ports found on some older PCs. If you wish to connect one of these, you need a board or adapter to convert the signal levels. See [http://codeandlife.com/2012/07/01/raspberry-pi-serial-console-with-max3232cpe/ this tutorial] for one example on how to build a 3.3V to RS-232 level converter with a breadboard, a MAX3232CPE IC and five 0.1 uF capacitors.  
  
If you have a serial connection using 5V logic levels, you should ideally have a circuit to convert between the voltage levels. See [http://www.element14.com/community/groups/raspberry-pi/blog/2012/07/18/look-ma-no-display-using-the-raspberry-pi-serial-console this tutorial] for an example circuit. For prototyping work, provided the connections are kept short you may connect the GPIO TxD directly to the 5V RxD, and the 5V TxD can be connected via a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voltage_divider voltage divider] to the GPIO RxD. A 5V to 3V resistor divider can be built from a 2K2 (top) and a 3K3 (bottom) resistor.
+
If you wish to connect your Pi to a PC with a USB port, the simplest option is to use a USB-to-serial cable which uses 3.3V logic levels (e.g. the [http://www.adafruit.com/products/954 Adafruit 954] or the [http://www.ftdichip.com/Products/Cables/RPi.htm FTDI TTL-232R-RPI] cables). These can be simply plugged in directly to the GPIO header (see illustration).
 +
 
 +
If you wish to connect to a peripheral which has 0/5V signals, you should ideally have a circuit to convert between the voltage levels. See [http://www.element14.com/community/groups/raspberry-pi/blog/2012/07/18/look-ma-no-display-using-the-raspberry-pi-serial-console this tutorial] for an example circuit. For prototyping work, provided the connections are kept short you may connect the GPIO TxD directly to the 5V RxD, and the 5V TxD can be connected via a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voltage_divider voltage divider] to the GPIO RxD. A 5V to 3V resistor divider can be built from a 2K2 (top) and a 3K3 (bottom) resistor.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
== Connection to a PC ==
  
When this is done, you will need to set up a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terminal_emulator terminal emulator] program on your PC as described below.
+
You can connect the Pi to a PC using a USB-serial cable, or (if it has an RS232 port) a level-converter circuit - see above for details. When this is done, you will need to set up a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terminal_emulator terminal emulator] program on your PC as described below.
  
 
===Console serial parameters===
 
===Console serial parameters===
Line 28: Line 33:
 
===Linux terminal set up===
 
===Linux terminal set up===
  
You will need to know the ''port name'' of your PC's serial port. On Linux this will be:
+
If your PC is running Linux, you will need to know the ''port name'' of its serial port:
  
* Built-in (standard) Serial Port: '''/dev/ttyS0''', '''/dev/ttyS1''', and so on.
+
* Built-in (standard) Serial Port: the Linux standard is  '''/dev/ttyS0''', '''/dev/ttyS1''', and so on  
 
* USB Serial Port Adapter: '''/dev/ttyUSB0''', '''/dev/ttyUSB1''', and so on.
 
* USB Serial Port Adapter: '''/dev/ttyUSB0''', '''/dev/ttyUSB1''', and so on.
 
** Some types of USB serial adapter may appear as '''/dev/ttyACM0''' ...  
 
** Some types of USB serial adapter may appear as '''/dev/ttyACM0''' ...  
  
You will need to be a member of the ''dialout'' group to access this port. You can check this with the command
+
You will need to be a member of the ''dialout'' group to access this port (for later releases the required group is ''tty''). You can check which is needed with:
 +
ls -l /dev/ttyUSB0
 +
and you will see something like "crw-rw----T 1 root dialout ..." which says root can 'create,read,write' and the group xxx can 'read,write' to the port and everyone else cannot access it.
 +
 
 +
To find out if you, the current user, is in the group dialout, use the command:
 +
 
 
  id
 
  id
  
Line 65: Line 75:
  
 
Start ''GtkTerm'', select Configuration->Port and enter the values above in the labeled fields.
 
Start ''GtkTerm'', select Configuration->Port and enter the values above in the labeled fields.
 
  
 
===Windows terminal set-up===
 
===Windows terminal set-up===
  
Windows Users above Windows XP must download [http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/putty/download.html putty], [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tera_Term TeraTerm] or a comparable terminal program.
+
Users of Windows Vista or later will need to download a terminal program, for instance [http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/putty/download.html PuTTY], or [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tera_Term TeraTerm]. Users of XP and below can choose between using ''PuTTY'' and the built-in ''Hyperterminal.''
Users of XP and below can choose between using ''putty'' and ''Hyperterminal.''
+
  
You will need to know the number of your serial (COM) port. Built-in ports are COM0 to COM3, and USB-attached ports are COM4 and upwards.
+
PuTTY users simply need to choose 'serial', select the correct COM port and set the speed, as shown in the dialog below.
  
==First Dialog==
+
[[File:Putty-settings.png]]
If you get the prompt below, you are connected to the Raspberry Pi shell!
+
  prompt> #
+
  
First command you might want try is "help":
+
If you are unsure of the COM port, run [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Device_manager Device Manager]] and look under 'Ports'. USB-attached serial adapters should have the name of the adapter shown (the Adafruit cable comes up as 'Prolific USB-to_Serial Comm Port'.
  prompt> # help
+
  
If you get some output, you are correctly connected to the Raspberry Pi! Congratulations!
+
===Boot messages===
  
==Unwanted serial garbage input==
+
If your connection is set up correctly, when the Pi is booted you should see many messages as the system comes up:
 +
Uncompressing Linux... done, booting the kernel.
 +
[    0.000000] Initializing cgroup subsys cpu
 +
[    0.000000] Linux version 3.2.27+ (dc4@dc4-arm-01) (gcc version 4.7.2 20120731 (prerelease) (crosstool-NG linaro-1.13.1+bzr2458 - Linaro GCC 2012.08) ) #250 PREEMPT Thu Oct 18 19:03:02 BST 2012
 +
[    0.000000] CPU: ARMv6-compatible processor [410fb767] revision 7 (ARMv7), cr=00c5387d
 +
[    0.000000] CPU: PIPT / VIPT nonaliasing data cache, VIPT nonaliasing instruction cache
 +
[    0.000000] Machine: BCM2708
 +
[    0.000000] Memory policy: ECC disabled, Data cache writeback
 +
[    0.000000] Built 1 zonelists in Zone order, mobility grouping on.  Total pages: 113792
 +
[    0.000000] Kernel command line: dma.dmachans=0x7f35 bcm2708_fb.fbwidth=656 bcm2708_fb.fbheight=416 bcm2708.boardrev=0xf bcm2708.serial=0xcc5c4b6d smsc95xx.macaddr=B8:27:EB:5C:4B:6D sdhci-bcm2708.emmc_clock_freq=100000000 vc_mem.mem_base=0x1c000000 vc_mem.mem_size=0x20000000  dwc_otg.lpm_enable=0 console=ttyAMA0,115200 console=tty1 root=/dev/mmcblk0p2 rootfstype=ext4 elevator=deadline rootwait
 +
 
 +
and so on. Eventually, you should see a login prompt:
 +
 
 +
Debian GNU/Linux wheezy/sid raspi2 ttyAMA0
 +
 +
raspi2 login:
 +
 
 +
You can then log in as you would with a keyboard and screen.
 +
 
 +
=== Unwanted serial garbage input ===
 
Note that on older software by accident the internal pullups of the RxD GPIO pins were not enabled, this could lead to lots of serial garbage being picked up if the GPIO pin was touched, or even if a finger was nearby. In extreme case this could lead to kernel warnings and other problems.
 
Note that on older software by accident the internal pullups of the RxD GPIO pins were not enabled, this could lead to lots of serial garbage being picked up if the GPIO pin was touched, or even if a finger was nearby. In extreme case this could lead to kernel warnings and other problems.
  
 
==Connection to a microcontroller or other peripheral==
 
==Connection to a microcontroller or other peripheral==
  
The TxD and TXD signals can also be connected directly to similar signals on a microcontroller board like the arduino provided the signals are all at 3V3 levels. It's still a good idea to put 2K2 series resistors in the lines to prevent damage when two outputs are connected together, which could also happen if a GPIO input pin is accidentally programmed as output.
+
The TxD and RxD signals can also be connected directly to similar signals on a microcontroller board like the Arduino provided the signals are all at 3V3 levels. Some Arduino variants use 5V levels, and should have level conversion (see 'Connections and Signal levels' above). Even at 3V3 levels, it's still a good idea to put 2K2 series resistors in the lines to prevent damage when two outputs are connected together, which could also happen if a GPIO input pin is accidentally programmed as output.
 +
 
 +
If your microcontroller uses 5V logic levels, level conversion is usually necessary - see 'Connecting to a PC' for details.
 +
 
 +
===Preventing Linux using the serial port===
 +
 
 +
The Broadcom UART appears as <code>/dev/ttyAMA0</code> under Linux. There are several minor things in the way if you want to have dedicated control of the serial port on a Raspberry Pi.
 +
 
 +
* Firstly, the kernel will use the port as controlled by kernel command line contained in <code>/boot/cmdline.txt</code>. The file will look something like this:
 +
dwc_otg.lpm_enable=0 console=ttyAMA0,115200 kgdboc=ttyAMA0,115200 console=tty1 root=/dev/mmcblk0p2 rootfstype=ext4 elevator=deadline rootwait
 +
 +
The ''console'' keyword outputs messages during boot, and the ''kgdboc'' keyword enables kernel debugging. You will need to remove all references to ttyAMA0. So, for the example above <code>/boot/cmdline.txt</code>, should contain:
 +
dwc_otg.lpm_enable=0 console=tty1 root=/dev/mmcblk0p2 rootfstype=ext4 elevator=deadline rootwait
  
there are several minor things in the way if you want to have dedicated control of the serial port on a raspberry pi
+
You must be root to edit this (e.g. use <code>sudo nano /boot/cmdline.txt</code>). Be careful doing this, as a faulty command line can prevent the system booting.
  
the first is kernel boot messages at startup, those are caused by the kernel parameter console=ttyAMA0,115200 set in /boot/cmdline.txt
+
* Secondly, after booting, a login prompt appears on the serial port. This is controlled by the following lines in <code>/etc/inittab</code>:
 +
#Spawn a getty on Raspberry Pi serial line
 +
T0:23:respawn:/sbin/getty -L ttyAMA0 115200 vt100
  
next is the login prompt, set in /etc/inittab with the line T0:23:respawn:/sbin/getty -L ttyAMA0 115200 vt100
+
You will need to edit this file to comment out the second line, i.e.
 +
#T0:23:respawn:/sbin/getty -L ttyAMA0 115200 vt100
  
kernel debuging is also on the serial port and i dont know what effect it may have on the end-use, so you may want to turn that off also in cmdline.txt, just remove kgdboc=ttyAMA0,115200
+
Finally you will need to reboot the Pi for the new settings to take effect. Once this is done, you can use <code>/dev/ttyAMA0</code> like any normal linux serial port, and you wont get any unwanted traffic confusing the attached devices.
  
once all of those are off, you can use /dev/ttyAMA0 like any normal linux serial port, and you wont get any unwanted traffic confusing the attached devices
+
The above instructions have been verified on Raspbian 'wheezy'; other distributions may be set up differently. To double-check, use
 +
cat /proc/cmdline
 +
to show the current kernel command line, and  
 +
ps aux | grep ttyAMA0
 +
to search for <code>getty</code> processes using the serial port.
  
some distro's may be setup differently, just double check 'ps aux|grep ttyAMA0' and 'cat /proc/cmdline' to verify ttyAMA0 is not in use anywhere
+
A tutorial on accessing the Pi's serial port from Python is available at [[Serial_port_programming]].
  
 +
===Handshaking lines===
 
You can have the RTS0 signal on GPIO 17 (P1-11) if you set it to ALT function 3. Likewise, the CTS0 is available on GPIO 30 (P5-05), if it is set to ALT function 3. You can control the settings of IOs with [https://github.com/rewolff/bw_rpi_tools/tree/master/gpio  gpio_setfunc]
 
You can have the RTS0 signal on GPIO 17 (P1-11) if you set it to ALT function 3. Likewise, the CTS0 is available on GPIO 30 (P5-05), if it is set to ALT function 3. You can control the settings of IOs with [https://github.com/rewolff/bw_rpi_tools/tree/master/gpio  gpio_setfunc]
 
   
 
   
 
{{Template:Raspberry Pi}}
 
{{Template:Raspberry Pi}}

Revision as of 07:53, 19 April 2013

Back to RPi Advanced Setup.

The Serial Port is a low-level way to send data between the Raspberry Pi and another computer system. There are two main ways in which it can be used:

  • Connecting to a PC to allow access to the Linux console. This can help to fix problems during boot, or to log in to the Pi if the video and network are not available.
  • Connecting to a microcontroller or other peripheral which has a serial interface. This can be useful if you want the Pi to control another device.

Connections and signal levels

Adafruit serial cable connected to Pi

The Raspberry Pi serial port consists of two signals (a 'transmit' signal, TxD and a 'receive' signal RxD) made available on the GPIO header. To connect to another serial device, you connect the 'transmit' of one to the 'receive' of the other, and vice versa. You will also need to connect the Ground pins of the two devices together.

The Broadcom chip at the heart of the Pi uses 0 and 3.3V logic levels, not the +/-12V used by RS-232 serial ports found on some older PCs. If you wish to connect one of these, you need a board or adapter to convert the signal levels. See this tutorial for one example on how to build a 3.3V to RS-232 level converter with a breadboard, a MAX3232CPE IC and five 0.1 uF capacitors.

If you wish to connect your Pi to a PC with a USB port, the simplest option is to use a USB-to-serial cable which uses 3.3V logic levels (e.g. the Adafruit 954 or the FTDI TTL-232R-RPI cables). These can be simply plugged in directly to the GPIO header (see illustration).

If you wish to connect to a peripheral which has 0/5V signals, you should ideally have a circuit to convert between the voltage levels. See this tutorial for an example circuit. For prototyping work, provided the connections are kept short you may connect the GPIO TxD directly to the 5V RxD, and the 5V TxD can be connected via a voltage divider to the GPIO RxD. A 5V to 3V resistor divider can be built from a 2K2 (top) and a 3K3 (bottom) resistor.


Connection to a PC

You can connect the Pi to a PC using a USB-serial cable, or (if it has an RS232 port) a level-converter circuit - see above for details. When this is done, you will need to set up a terminal emulator program on your PC as described below.

Console serial parameters

The following parameters are needed to connect to the Pi console, and apply on both Linux and Windows.

  • Speed (baud rate): 115200
  • Bits: 8
  • Parity: None
  • Stop Bits: 1
  • Flow Control: None

Linux terminal set up

If your PC is running Linux, you will need to know the port name of its serial port:

  • Built-in (standard) Serial Port: the Linux standard is /dev/ttyS0, /dev/ttyS1, and so on
  • USB Serial Port Adapter: /dev/ttyUSB0, /dev/ttyUSB1, and so on.
    • Some types of USB serial adapter may appear as /dev/ttyACM0 ...

You will need to be a member of the dialout group to access this port (for later releases the required group is tty). You can check which is needed with:

ls -l /dev/ttyUSB0

and you will see something like "crw-rw----T 1 root dialout ..." which says root can 'create,read,write' and the group xxx can 'read,write' to the port and everyone else cannot access it.

To find out if you, the current user, is in the group dialout, use the command:

id

If you do not see dialout listed, add yourself with the command

sudo usermod -a -G dialout username

You then have a choice of terminal emulation programs:

  • Super Easy Way Using GNU Screen

Enter the command below into a terminal window

 screen port_name 115200

To exit GNU screen, type Control-A k.

  • Super Easy Way Using Minicom

Run minicom with the following parameters:

minicom -b 115200 -o -D Port_Name

You can exit minicom with Control-A x

  • Tedious Old-Fashioned Way Using Minicom

Another method to setup minicom is described in the Tincantools Minicom Tutorial


  • GUI method with GtkTerm

Start GtkTerm, select Configuration->Port and enter the values above in the labeled fields.

Windows terminal set-up

Users of Windows Vista or later will need to download a terminal program, for instance PuTTY, or TeraTerm. Users of XP and below can choose between using PuTTY and the built-in Hyperterminal.

PuTTY users simply need to choose 'serial', select the correct COM port and set the speed, as shown in the dialog below.

Putty-settings.png

If you are unsure of the COM port, run [Device Manager] and look under 'Ports'. USB-attached serial adapters should have the name of the adapter shown (the Adafruit cable comes up as 'Prolific USB-to_Serial Comm Port'.

Boot messages

If your connection is set up correctly, when the Pi is booted you should see many messages as the system comes up:

Uncompressing Linux... done, booting the kernel.
[    0.000000] Initializing cgroup subsys cpu
[    0.000000] Linux version 3.2.27+ (dc4@dc4-arm-01) (gcc version 4.7.2 20120731 (prerelease) (crosstool-NG linaro-1.13.1+bzr2458 - Linaro GCC 2012.08) ) #250 PREEMPT Thu Oct 18 19:03:02 BST 2012
[    0.000000] CPU: ARMv6-compatible processor [410fb767] revision 7 (ARMv7), cr=00c5387d
[    0.000000] CPU: PIPT / VIPT nonaliasing data cache, VIPT nonaliasing instruction cache
[    0.000000] Machine: BCM2708
[    0.000000] Memory policy: ECC disabled, Data cache writeback
[    0.000000] Built 1 zonelists in Zone order, mobility grouping on.  Total pages: 113792
[    0.000000] Kernel command line: dma.dmachans=0x7f35 bcm2708_fb.fbwidth=656 bcm2708_fb.fbheight=416 bcm2708.boardrev=0xf bcm2708.serial=0xcc5c4b6d smsc95xx.macaddr=B8:27:EB:5C:4B:6D sdhci-bcm2708.emmc_clock_freq=100000000 vc_mem.mem_base=0x1c000000 vc_mem.mem_size=0x20000000  dwc_otg.lpm_enable=0 console=ttyAMA0,115200 console=tty1 root=/dev/mmcblk0p2 rootfstype=ext4 elevator=deadline rootwait

and so on. Eventually, you should see a login prompt:

Debian GNU/Linux wheezy/sid raspi2 ttyAMA0

raspi2 login:

You can then log in as you would with a keyboard and screen.

Unwanted serial garbage input

Note that on older software by accident the internal pullups of the RxD GPIO pins were not enabled, this could lead to lots of serial garbage being picked up if the GPIO pin was touched, or even if a finger was nearby. In extreme case this could lead to kernel warnings and other problems.

Connection to a microcontroller or other peripheral

The TxD and RxD signals can also be connected directly to similar signals on a microcontroller board like the Arduino provided the signals are all at 3V3 levels. Some Arduino variants use 5V levels, and should have level conversion (see 'Connections and Signal levels' above). Even at 3V3 levels, it's still a good idea to put 2K2 series resistors in the lines to prevent damage when two outputs are connected together, which could also happen if a GPIO input pin is accidentally programmed as output.

If your microcontroller uses 5V logic levels, level conversion is usually necessary - see 'Connecting to a PC' for details.

Preventing Linux using the serial port

The Broadcom UART appears as /dev/ttyAMA0 under Linux. There are several minor things in the way if you want to have dedicated control of the serial port on a Raspberry Pi.

  • Firstly, the kernel will use the port as controlled by kernel command line contained in /boot/cmdline.txt. The file will look something like this:
dwc_otg.lpm_enable=0 console=ttyAMA0,115200 kgdboc=ttyAMA0,115200 console=tty1 root=/dev/mmcblk0p2 rootfstype=ext4 elevator=deadline rootwait

The console keyword outputs messages during boot, and the kgdboc keyword enables kernel debugging. You will need to remove all references to ttyAMA0. So, for the example above /boot/cmdline.txt, should contain:

dwc_otg.lpm_enable=0 console=tty1 root=/dev/mmcblk0p2 rootfstype=ext4 elevator=deadline rootwait

You must be root to edit this (e.g. use sudo nano /boot/cmdline.txt). Be careful doing this, as a faulty command line can prevent the system booting.

  • Secondly, after booting, a login prompt appears on the serial port. This is controlled by the following lines in /etc/inittab:
#Spawn a getty on Raspberry Pi serial line
T0:23:respawn:/sbin/getty -L ttyAMA0 115200 vt100

You will need to edit this file to comment out the second line, i.e.

#T0:23:respawn:/sbin/getty -L ttyAMA0 115200 vt100

Finally you will need to reboot the Pi for the new settings to take effect. Once this is done, you can use /dev/ttyAMA0 like any normal linux serial port, and you wont get any unwanted traffic confusing the attached devices.

The above instructions have been verified on Raspbian 'wheezy'; other distributions may be set up differently. To double-check, use

cat /proc/cmdline

to show the current kernel command line, and

ps aux | grep ttyAMA0

to search for getty processes using the serial port.

A tutorial on accessing the Pi's serial port from Python is available at Serial_port_programming.

Handshaking lines

You can have the RTS0 signal on GPIO 17 (P1-11) if you set it to ALT function 3. Likewise, the CTS0 is available on GPIO 30 (P5-05), if it is set to ALT function 3. You can control the settings of IOs with gpio_setfunc