Security Terms

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Asynchronous I/O::: I/O where control is returned to the calling program after the I/O process has started, but before the I/O is completed. The I/O transfer runs in parallel with respect to the processor work. The user program continues executing at the same time the I/O operation is executing.
Blocking I/O::: I/O where control is not returned to the calling program until all requested data is transferred. The I/O transfer runs serially with respect to the processor work.
File system 
 : The methods and data structures that an operating system uses to keep track of files on a disk or partition; the way the files are organized on the disk. Also used about a partition or disk that is used to store the files or the type of the file system.


Linux Security Modules (LSM)::: A framework to support security systems as loadable Linux modules.
Non-blocking I/O::: I/O where control is returned to the calling program after the I/O process has started, but before the I/O is completed. The I/O transfer runs in parallel with respect to the processor work. The user program continues executing at the same time the I/O operation is executing.
Non-volatile storage::: (NVS, persistent storage, memory) A term describing a storage device whose contents are preserved when its power is off. Storage using magnetic media (e.g. magnetic disks, magnetic tape or bubble memory) is normally non-volatile by nature whereas semiconductor memories (static RAM and especially dynamic RAM) are normally volatile but can be made into non-volatile storage by having a (rechargeable) battery permanently connected.
RAM-based file system::: A file system built on RAM as the storage medium.
Stack guarding 
 : A mechanism for protecting the system from buffer overrun ("stack smashing") attacks.


Synchronous I/O::: I/O where control is not returned to the calling program until all requested data is transferred. The I/O transfer runs serially with respect to the processor work.