Difference between revisions of "BeagleBoardDebian"

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Line 102: Line 102:
 
   usb0: USB net <- haven't tested & not sure how to setup...
 
   usb0: USB net <- haven't tested & not sure how to setup...
 
   eth0: Ethernet <- Your usb-ethernet device
 
   eth0: Ethernet <- Your usb-ethernet device
   wlan0: Wifi <- Your usb-wifi device.. I had to execute a shell, mount a card and copy the firmware files to /lib/firmware, then enter the installer to get my zd1211 card to work.  I also had to plug the card in after booted.
+
   wlan0: Wifi <- Your usb-wifi device.. See [[BeagleBoardDebianWifiInstallInfo]] for my hack to set it up.
  
 
  Continue the install without loading kernel modules? : <yes>
 
  Continue the install without loading kernel modules? : <yes>

Revision as of 17:10, 27 April 2009

This page is about running a (ARM EABI) Debian distribution at BeagleBoard. BeagleBoard will boot the (ARM EABI) Debian distribution from SD card. To prepare the SD card and install (ARM EABI) Debian on it, QEMU on host PC will be used, following Aurélien Jarno's excellent Debian on an emulated ARM machine howto.

Note: Debian armel deb's are compiled for armv4t, this allows debian to support a larger number of arm devices with a single port, at only the sacrifice of speed.

KNOWN ISSUES

None... --RobertCNelson 20:32, 26 April 2009 (UTC)

Recommended Kernel

So like any big document, it's hard to keep everything up to date. So if your trying Debian/Mojo for the first time, here's what i recommend, (and it's the same thing i'm running on the build beagle.)

Considered old-Stable: 2.6.28-oer17 :

lenny: http://www.rcn-ee.com/deb/kernel/beagle/lenny/v2.6.28-79d042a-oer17/

squeeze: http://www.rcn-ee.com/deb/kernel/beagle/squeeze/v2.6.28-79d042a-oer17/

Testing for Stable: 2.6.29-oer31.1 :

Lenny: http://www.rcn-ee.com/deb/kernel/beagle/lenny/v2.6.29-58cf2f1-oer31.1/ /* build just started */

Squeeze: http://www.rcn-ee.com/deb/kernel/beagle/squeeze/v2.6.29-58cf2f1-oer31.1/ /* build just started */

Currently Testing with Build Beagle: http://www.rcn-ee.com/deb/kernel/beagle/squeeze/v2.6.29-58cf2f1-oer31/

Uboot: http://elinux.org/BeagleBoardDebian#Upgrading_u-boot

Native Install via debian-installer (NON QEMU based)

Note: This install method requires an LCD+usb(keyboard,etc), and uboot 2008-rc2 (Upgrading u-boot (2.6.27's and later)) or later..

Testing First Release:

PC: Format SD Card

You will need a 1GB SD card or greater.

Standard System : ~455MB
+ Desktop environment (GNOME) : ~2.9GB

Starting with an empty SD card and using gparted, create:

50 MiB Primary Partition, fat32
Leave remaining space for the Debian-Installer

PC: Setup SD uboot Partition

Mount your SD card fat32 partition. (/media/disk/)

Debian Lenny old-Stable

cd /media/disk/
wget http://www.rcn-ee.com/deb/kernel/CC-v2.6.28-79d042a-oer17
wget http://ftp.debian.org/debian/dists/lenny/main/installer-armel/current/images/versatile/netboot/initrd.gz
mv CC-v2.6.28-79d042a-oer17 uImage
gzip -d initrd.gz
dd if=initrd of=initrd.pad ibs=8388608 conv=sync

Debian Lenny Stable

cd /media/disk/
sudo wget http://www.rcn-ee.com/deb/kernel/CC-beagle-v2.6.29-58cf2f1-oer31.1
sudo wget http://ftp.debian.org/debian/dists/lenny/main/installer-armel/current/images/versatile/netboot/initrd.gz
sudo mv CC-beagle-v2.6.29-58cf2f1-oer31.1 uImage
sudo gzip -d initrd.gz
sudo dd if=initrd of=initrd.pad ibs=8388608 conv=sync

Tested: 2.6.29-oer31 install RevB5 & RevC2--RobertCNelson 14:33, 24 April 2009 (UTC)

Beagleboard

Mount SD card

For Linux Kernel 2.6.28 with DSS2
setenv bootcmd 'mmcinit; fatload mmc 0:1 0x80300000 uImage; fatload mmc 0:1 0x81600000 initrd.pad; bootm 0x80300000'
setenv bootargs 'console=ttyS2,115200n8 console=tty0 ramdisk_size=8192 root=/dev/ram0 rw rootfstype=ext2 initrd=0x81600000,8M omap-dss.def_disp=lcd omapfb.video_mode=1280x720MR-16@60'
saveenv
boot
For Linux Kernel 2.6.29 and higher using DSS2
setenv bootcmd 'mmcinit; fatload mmc 0:1 0x80300000 uImage; fatload mmc 0:1 0x81600000 initrd.pad; bootm 0x80300000'

Debian Install over DVI Port
setenv bootargs 'console=tty0 ramdisk_size=8192 root=/dev/ram0 rw rootfstype=ext2 initrd=0x81600000,8M omapfb.mode=dvi:1280x720MR-16@60'

Debian Install over the Serial Port *(this seems to be a regression from 2.6.28, which allowed you to specify both...)
setenv bootargs 'console=ttyS2,115200n8 ramdisk_size=8192 root=/dev/ram0 rw rootfstype=ext2 initrd=0x81600000,8M'

saveenv
boot

The debian-installer should load via the framebuffer, if the screen remains blank, try different resolutions for the bootargs:

You shall adapt the resolution to you screen as following :

omapfb.mode=dvi:1280x720MR-24@60
Modes:
"1024x768MR-24@60""800x600-MR24@60" ...

Here is more explanation on dss video options : [1]

Choose a language
 C - No localization
 English - English
Configure the network:
 usb0: USB net <- haven't tested & not sure how to setup...
 eth0: Ethernet <- Your usb-ethernet device
 wlan0: Wifi <- Your usb-wifi device.. See BeagleBoardDebianWifiInstallInfo for my hack to set it up.
Continue the install without loading kernel modules? : <yes>
Partition disks: This partitioner doesn't have the inform.....? : <yes>
 Logical Volume Manager not available: <Continue>
Partition disks:
 Guided - Use the largest continuous free space
Partitioning scheme....

Example:

MMC/SD card #1 (mmcblk0) - 2.0 GB Unknown
>  #1 primary  57.5 MB     fat32
>  #2 primary   1.8 GB B f ext3  /
>  #5 logical 148.0 MB   f swap  swap
Finish partitioning and write changes to disk
 Write the changes to disk? : <yes>
No installable kernel was found in the defined APT sources? : 
 Continue without installing a kernel? : <yes>
Standard System
No BootLoader: <ok>

Install complete

Reboot (aka remove power)

Uboot update bootcmd & bootargs

For Linux Kernel 2.6.28 using DSS2
setenv bootcmd 'mmcinit; fatload mmc 0:1 0x80300000 uImage; bootm 0x80300000'
setenv bootargs 'console=ttyS2,115200n8 console=tty0 root=/dev/mmcblk0p2 rootdelay=2 rootfstype=ext3 ro omap-dss.def_disp=lcd omapfb.video_mode=1280x720MR-24@60'
saveenv
boot
For Linux Kernel 2.6.29 and higher using DSS2
setenv bootcmd 'mmcinit; fatload mmc 0:1 0x80300000 uImage; bootm 0x80300000'

DVI Port
setenv bootargs 'console=tty0 root=/dev/mmcblk0p2 rootwait rootfstype=ext3 ro omapfb.mode=dvi:1280x720MR-16@60'

Serial Port
setenv bootargs 'console=ttyS2,115200n8 root=/dev/mmcblk0p2 rootwait rootfstype=ext3 ro'

saveenv
boot

Debian will fix the ext3 partition, it'll try to reboot, after halting remove and reapply power.

Login & Install kernel-image

cd /home/<user>
sudo apt-get install uboot-mkimage 
wget http://www.rcn-ee.com/deb/kernel/beagle/lenny/v2.6.28-79d042a-oer17/linux-image-2.6.28-oer17_1.0lenny_armel.deb
sudo dpkg -i linux-image*

Extract linux-image's vmlinuz-*

dpkg -x linux-image* ./temp

Mount fat32 partition

sudo mount /dev/mmcblk0p1 /mnt

Build uboot compatible image and copy to fat32 boot partition

sudo mkimage -A arm -O linux -T kernel -C none -a 0x80008000 -e 0x80008000 -n "Linux" -d ./temp/boot/vmlinuz-*  /mnt/uImage

Clean up

rm -rfd temp

Sync, umount Partitions and Reboot

QEMU install method via debian-installer (emulated arm core via Desktop PC)

This methods lasted 4 hours on a PC Ubuntu/Lenny (P4 2GHz) with an external USB2.0 card reader. Install QEMU on your host PC. This assumes that your host PC is running Debian as well. If not, install QEMU the way your host PC distribution uses.

apt-get install qemu

Note: If your debian armel image crashes while fscking the partition, rebuild qemu from trunk.

PC: Format SD Card

You will need a 1GB SD card or greater, depending on the installation chosen :

Standard System (without graphical environment) : ~455MB
+ Desktop environment (GNOME) : ~2.3GB

Please note that installer download all packages before installing them, that's why you'll need more space disk.

Starting with an empty SD card and using gparted/fdisk, create:

50 MiB Primary Partition, fat32
Leave remaining space for the Debian-Installer

PC: Preparation

Create a working directory to keep your files organized.

mkdir debian-armel
cd debian-armel/
wget ftp://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/dists/lenny/main/installer-armel/current/images/versatile/netboot/initrd.gz
wget ftp://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/dists/lenny/main/installer-armel/current/images/versatile/netboot/vmlinuz-2.6.26-1-versatile

PC: Install Debian in QEMU

Quick Note: Debian Lenny is undergoing Beta/RC testing so these debian installers are currently way out of date, so it will tell you their are unavailable kernel modules, just ignore the question and continue. These modules will be provided later, with the provided linux-image deb.

To install (ARM EABI) Debian inside QEMU:

sudo qemu-system-arm -M versatilepb -kernel vmlinuz-2.6.26-1-versatile -initrd initrd.gz -m 256 -hda /dev/sdX -append "root=/dev/ram mem=256M"

Note: root/sudo access is required to access /dev/sdX directly (verify mmc card with fdisk -l)

Partition disks, default settings should work for most: Guided - use the largest continuous free space

Beagleboarddebian-partitiondisk.png

PC: Running Debian in QEMU (Optional)

Note: This section is only useful for people with out a usb-network device for their beagle who would like to install additional applications, otherwise just skip to the next subsection to install your linux-kernel by copying files from your desktop pc to a SD card. As ext3 filesystem support is not included in kernel you will need an initrd, just copy the one installed in the SD card in /boot.

sudo qemu-system-arm -M versatilepb -kernel vmlinuz-2.6.26-1-versatile -initrd initrd.img-2.6.26-1-versatile -m 256 -hda /dev/sdX -append "root=/dev/sda2 mem=256M"

Note: Time will be incorrect.

sudo apt-get install ntpdate
ntpdate pool.ntp.org

Install default deb packages for linux-image & linux-headers.

Stable  2.6.28
wget http://www.rcn-ee.com/deb/kernel/beagle/lenny/v2.6.28-79d042a-oer17/linux-image-2.6.28-oer17_1.0lenny_armel.deb
sudo dpkg -i *.deb

Note: It's easier to download these straight to the sd card after you've mounted the SD card to copy uImage to the FAT partition.

PC: Linux Kernel Preparation

Install uboot-mkimage utility

sudo apt-get install uboot-mkimage 

Remount SD card, Ubuntu remounts SD card like this:

/media/vfat/ <fat32>
/media/debian/ <ext3>

Download Kernel-Image

cd /media/debian/home/<user>/ 
wget http://www.rcn-ee.com/deb/kernel/beagle/lenny/v2.6.28-79d042a-oer17/linux-image-2.6.28-oer17_1.0lenny_armel.deb

Extract linux-image's vmlinuz-*

dpkg -x linux-image* ./temp

Build uboot compatible image and copy to /media/disk/ <fat32 boot partition>

mkimage -A arm -O linux -T kernel -C none -a 0x80008000 -e 0x80008000 -n "Linux" -d ./temp/boot/vmlinuz-*  /media/vfat/uImage

Clean up

rm -rfd temp

Sync, umount Partitions and Install sd card in beagleboard

Beagleboard First Boot, uboot, general notes

Insert SD Card and power up Beagleboard.

Boot

Using a terminal program, stop u-boot and add these commands:

For Linux Kernel 2.6.28 using DSS2
setenv bootcmd 'mmcinit; fatload mmc 0:1 0x80300000 uImage; bootm 0x80300000'
setenv bootargs 'console=ttyS2,115200n8 console=tty0 root=/dev/mmcblk0p2 rootdelay=2 rootfstype=ext3 ro omap-dss.def_disp=lcd omapfb.video_mode=1280x720MR-24@60'
saveenv
boot
For Linux Kernel 2.6.29 and higher using DSS2
setenv bootcmd 'mmcinit; fatload mmc 0:1 0x80300000 uImage; bootm 0x80300000'

DVI Port
setenv bootargs 'console=tty0 root=/dev/mmcblk0p2 rootwait rootfstype=ext3 ro omapfb.mode=dvi:1280x720MR-16@60'

Serial Port
setenv bootargs 'console=ttyS2,115200n8 root=/dev/mmcblk0p2 rootwait rootfstype=ext3 ro'

saveenv
boot

You shall adapt the resolution to you screen as following :

omapfb.mode=dvi:1280x720MR-24@60
Modes:
"1024x768MR-24@60""800x600-MR24@60" ...

Here is more explanation on dss video options : [2]

The Beagleboard will reboot 3-4 times while the ext3 filesystem is repaired. (may have to remove power etc)

Upgrading u-boot

Using gparted, create a new 50MB Primary fat32 Partition on a blank SD card, or use your existing fat32 partition.

cd /media/disk
sudo wget http://rcn-ee.homeip.net:81/dl/omap/uboot/u-boot-beagleboard-2009.03+r22+gitr2dea1db2a3b7c12ed70bbf8ee50755089c5e5170-r22.bin
sudo mv u-boot-beagleboard-2009.03+r22+gitr2dea1db2a3b7c12ed70bbf8ee50755089c5e5170-r22.bin u-boot-f.bin

Tested --RobertCNelson 16:37, 24 April 2009 (UTC) RevB5 + 2.6.29-oer31 & RevC2 + 2.6.29-oer31

Insert SD Card, boot Beagleboard and stop U-Boot from booting

mmcinit
fatload mmc 0 0x80200000 u-boot-f.bin
nand unlock
nandecc sw
nand erase 80000 160000
nand write.i 0x80200000 80000 160000
reset

Debian on Beagleboard

Debian on BeagleBoard uses the following configuration:

  • Console log = Serial Terminal
  • User Console = HDMI port + usb (keyboard, mouse, etc).

If you want to log in with the serial port, you will have to add to /etc/inittab

 S:2345:respawn:/sbin/getty 115200 ttyS2

And if you want to log in as root on the serial port, add ttyS2 to /etc/securetty.

Note : the beagle board I have was not configured as USB host. I had to modify it to be able to use mouse and keyboards (see [3]). I you do not want to do this, you'll have to install a Vnc server on the beagle to access desktop.

Current Issues

  1. Xorg not displaying, modify /etc/X11/xorg.conf as following :
Section "Device"
	Identifier	"Configured Video Device" 
	Option		"UseFBDev"		"true"
	Driver		"fbdev"
EndSection
  1. Swap disabled: change /dev/hda5 -> /dev/mmcblk0p5 in /etc/fstab (artifact of qemu install to /dev/hdaX)
  2. RTC seems to be not enabled: use ntpdate when ethernet works, or issue
date +"%m%d%y%H%M" -s MMDDYYHHMM

Beagleboarddebian-GNOME.jpg

Notes

  1. 'fbdev' is normally *slow* since it completely relies on the system cpu to update the framebuffer. Once the video processing core's driver is released this will no longer be an issue.
  2. Debian/Gnome actually need the swap to run (up to 90Mo of swap space on my beagle with 128Mo RAM shipped on it) so that it's even slower when using the SD card (try using an external hdd disk).

Advanced: Building a Native Debian Kernel

Note, these are just general build hints.

Install Dependencies

apt-get install git-core kernel-package fakeroot build-essential curl libncurses-dev uboot-mkimage 

Linux Kernel

git clone git://git2.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tmlind/linux-omap-2.6.git
cd linux-omap-2.6/
git checkout -b beagle <tag you wish to use>

Patch Kernel with patches you need:

patch -p1 < ~/dl/patches/*.patch

Setup Kernel .config

make CROSS_COMPILE= distclean

Copy or Make your defconfig

cp ~/dl/defconfig .config
or 
make CROSS_COMPILE= menuconfig

Create Debian linux-image* & linux-headers* Package

make-kpkg --cross_compile - clean
fakeroot make-kpkg --cross_compile - kernel_image kernel_headers

Create U-boot uImage

make CROSS_COMPILE= uImage

Deb Builder

Auto builds for lenny, sid, and mojo's; linux-image and linux-headers's in appropriate schroot's.

Latest Images Changelog

Rebuilding *.deb Kernel's from Source

Warning: This section was quite old, but lots of people still use it (download wise off my site) so i'm bumping this to a relatively stable checkout: 2.6.28-oer17 (and it actually works...)... However note, the PR variable is used differently in 2.6.29+ kernels...

Note, this is done native on the BeagleBoard...

GIT Checkout, Beagleboard patches, and defconfig.

Requires:

sudo aptitude install git-core gcc wget kernel-package fakeroot build-essential

For this example lets look at: http://cgit.openembedded.net/cgit.cgi?url=openembedded/commit/&id=df49f5e7f5a14c6736806f3163787608c958f4c9

All build that i do are logged here: http://www.rcn-ee.com/deb/kernel/changes.txt

Retrieve the GIT checkout

GIT Checkout: 79d042a081d3e467c735bb0d9569ed6296f85a3c or Shorthand: 79d042a

git-clone git://git2.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tmlind/linux-omap-2.6.git
cd linux-omap-2.6/

or if you already downloaded it..

cd linux-omap-2.6/
git pull

git checkout 79d042a -b v2.6.28-79d042a
git archive --format=tar --prefix=v2.6.28-79d042a/ v2.6.28-79d042a | gzip > ../v2.6.28-79d042a.tar.gz
git checkout master
git branch v2.6.28-79d042a -D
cd ..

Copy patches and defconfig

Open linux-omap**.bb: http://cgit.openembedded.net/cgit.cgi?url=openembedded/tree/recipes/linux/linux-omap_2.6.28.bb&id=df49f5e7f5a14c6736806f3163787608c958f4c9

This contains 20+ patches need to form a specific (oe) Openembedded release, too keep things neat and simple for my beagle builder, I'll usually combine this into a single diff located here along with the defconfig. http://rcn-ee.homeip.net:81/dl/omap/beagle/v2.6.28-79d042a-oer17/

wget http://rcn-ee.homeip.net:81/dl/omap/beagle/v2.6.28-79d042a-oer17/v2.6.28-79d042a-oer17.diff
wget http://rcn-ee.homeip.net:81/dl/omap/beagle/v2.6.28-79d042a-oer17/defconfig

Rebuild Deb

Extract Kernel Source

tar -xf v2.6.28-79d042a.tar.gz
cd v2.6.28-79d042a/

Apply Patch

patch -p1 < ../v2.6.28-79d042a-oer17.diff

Copy Defconfig

cp ../defconfig .config

Testing Changes

make menuconfig 

Clean

make-kpkg --cross_compile - clean

Build

fakeroot make-kpkg --cross_compile - kernel_image kernel_headers

(and wait 2hr 15mins)