Difference between revisions of "Parallella Linaro Nano"

From eLinux.org
Jump to: navigation, search
(Created page with "= How to Install Linaro nano 14.01 (minimal headless system) = Copied here from [http://forums.parallella.org/viewtopic.php?f=9&t=844&start=10#p5989 Shodruk's forum post]. ==...")
 
m
 
(27 intermediate revisions by 2 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
= How to Install Linaro nano 14.01 (minimal headless system) =
+
= How to Install Linaro Saucy Nano (minimal headless system) =
  
Copied here from [http://forums.parallella.org/viewtopic.php?f=9&t=844&start=10#p5989 Shodruk's forum post].
 
 
== Requirements ==
 
== Requirements ==
  
Ubuntu PC, SD Card, SD Card adapter, Parallella
+
Ubuntu PC, SD Card, SD Card adapter, Parallella board
  
 
On the PC's terminal:
 
On the PC's terminal:
  
 
== Download the files ==
 
== Download the files ==
 +
 +
Find the kernel tarball and the FPGA bitstream file that are suitable for your board.
 +
 +
http://www.parallella.org/create-sdcard/
 +
 +
Note: If you want to use "headless bitstream" and "headless kernel", first install Linaro using "HDMI bitstream" and "HDMI kernel", then replace them with the headless one. (A HDMI monitor and a keyboard are needed for installing process.)<br>
 +
These files are in the partition 1 (FAT32), so you can easily replace them using ordinary PC.
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
$ wget ftp://ftp.parallella.org/parallella/gen1/Parallella16_z7020wGPIO_131224.zip
+
wget --no-check-certificate https://[THE_URL_OF_THE_KERNEL_TARBALL]
  
$ wget http://releases.linaro.org/14.01/ubuntu/saucy-images/nano/linaro-saucy-nano-20140126-627.tar.gz
+
wget --no-check-certificate -O parallella.bit.bin https://[THE_URL_OF_THE_BITSTREAM]
  
$ wget https://github.com/parallella/parallella-bin/blob/master/rel.14.02.06.tgz
+
wget http://releases.linaro.org/14.04/ubuntu/saucy-images/nano/linaro-saucy-nano-20140410-652.tar.gz
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
== Unzip the files ==
+
<pre>md5sum linaro-saucy-nano-20140410-652.tar.gz</pre>
  
 +
<blockquote>
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
$ unzip Parallella16_z7020wGPIO_131224.zip
+
cded44187fb762ba7ea7b1ee092a0998  linaro-saucy-nano-20140410-652.tar.gz
 
 
$ tar xzf rel.14.02.06.tgz
 
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
 +
</blockquote>
  
 
== Determine the device name of the SD Card ==
 
== Determine the device name of the SD Card ==
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
$ sudo parted -l
+
sudo parted -l
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
 
In case of a 2GB SD Card:
 
In case of a 2GB SD Card:
  
 +
<blockquote>
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
 
Model: SD/MM Reader
 
Model: SD/MM Reader
Line 44: Line 51:
 
2 49.3MB 2042MB 1992MB primary ext4
 
2 49.3MB 2042MB 1992MB primary ext4
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
 +
</blockquote>
  
"/dev/sdX" is the device name of the SD Card
+
"/dev/sdX" is the device name of the SD Card<br />
(e.g. sdb, sdc, sdd, sde, ... and, Don't partition HDD!!!)
+
(e.g. sdb, sdc, sdd, sde, mmcblk0, mmcblk1, ... and, Beware! Don't partition HDD!!!)<br />
 +
sdX : an example of the device name (e.g. sde, mmcblk0)<br />
 +
sdX1 : partition 1 of the device (e.g. sde1, mmcblk0p1)<br />
 +
sdX2 : partition 2 of the device (e.g. sde2, mmcblk0p2)<br />
  
 
== Partition the SD Card ==
 
== Partition the SD Card ==
Line 53: Line 64:
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
$ sudo parted -a optimal /dev/sdX
+
sudo parted -a optimal /dev/sdX
  
 
(parted) print
 
(parted) print
Line 60: Line 71:
 
If there are two partitions on the SD Card,
 
If there are two partitions on the SD Card,
  
 +
<blockquote>
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
 
Number Start End Size Type File system Flags
 
Number Start End Size Type File system Flags
Line 65: Line 77:
 
2 99.6MB 2042MB 1942MB primary
 
2 99.6MB 2042MB 1942MB primary
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
 +
</blockquote>
  
 
Delete all existing partition
 
Delete all existing partition
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
(parted) rm 2
+
(parted) mklabel msdos
(parted) rm 1
+
Warning: The existing disk label on /dev/sdX will be destroyed
 +
and all data on this disk will be lost. Do you want to continue?
 +
Yes/No? yes
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
Line 76: Line 91:
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
(parted) mkpart p fat32 2048s 100m
+
(parted) mkpart p fat32 2048s 256MB
(parted) mkpart p ext2 100m -1m
+
(parted) mkpart p ext2 256MB -2MB
 
(parted) q
 
(parted) q
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
Line 84: Line 99:
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
$ sudo fdisk -l /dev/sdX
+
sudo fdisk -l /dev/sdX
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
 +
<blockquote>
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
 
Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
 
Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
/dev/sdX1 2048 194559 96256 c W95 FAT32 (LBA)
+
/dev/sdX1 2048 499711 248832 c W95 FAT32 (LBA)
/dev/sdX2 194560 3987455 1896448 83 Linux
+
/dev/sdX2 499712 3887103 1693696 83 Linux
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
 +
</blockquote>
  
 
Format the partition
 
Format the partition
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
$ sudo mkfs.vfat -n BOOT /dev/sdX1
+
sudo mkfs.vfat -n BOOT /dev/sdX1
$ sudo mkfs.ext4 -L rootfs /dev/sdX2
+
sudo mkfs.ext4 -L rootfs /dev/sdX2
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
Line 103: Line 120:
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
$ sudo mkdir /tmp/mnt1 /tmp/mnt2
+
sudo mkdir /tmp/mnt1 /tmp/mnt2
$ sudo mount /dev/sdX2 /tmp/mnt1
+
sudo mount /dev/sdX2 /tmp/mnt2
$ sudo tar --strip-components=1 -C /tmp/mnt1 -xzpf linaro-saucy-nano-20140126-627.tar.gz
+
sudo tar --strip-components=1 -C /tmp/mnt2 -xzpf linaro-saucy-nano-20140410-652.tar.gz
$ sudo sync
+
sudo sync
$ sudo umount /tmp/mnt1
+
sudo umount /tmp/mnt2
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
Line 113: Line 130:
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
$ sudo losetup -o 32256 /dev/loop0 Parallella16_z7020wGPIO_131220.img
+
sudo mount -o umask=000 -t vfat /dev/sdX1 /tmp/mnt1
$ sudo mount -o umask=000 -t vfat /dev/loop0 /tmp/mnt1
+
sudo tar --no-same-owner -C /tmp/mnt1 -xzf [THE_FILENAME_OF_THE_KERNEL_TARBALL]
$ sudo mount -o umask=000 -t vfat /dev/sdX1 /tmp/mnt2
+
sudo cp parallella.bit.bin /tmp/mnt1/
$ sudo cp -r /tmp/mnt1/* /tmp/mnt2/
+
sudo sync
$ sudo cp rel.14.02.06/* /tmp/mnt2/
+
sudo umount /tmp/mnt1
$ sudo sync
 
$ sudo umount /tmp/mnt1
 
$ sudo losetup -d /dev/loop0
 
$ sudo umount /tmp/mnt2
 
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
 
== Edit some configuration files ==
 
== Edit some configuration files ==
  
 +
==== Preventing to install unnecessary packages ====
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
$ sudo mount /dev/sdX2 /tmp/mnt1
+
sudo mount /dev/sdX2 /tmp/mnt2
$ sudo nano /tmp/mnt1/etc/apt/apt.conf.d/00InstallRecommends
+
sudo nano /tmp/mnt2/etc/apt/apt.conf.d/00InstallRecommends
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
 
+
(Edit and save.)
 +
<blockquote>
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
 
APT::Install-Recommends "false";
 
APT::Install-Recommends "false";
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
 +
</blockquote>
  
For extreme minimalist :D
+
==== Network configuration ====
 
 
Network configuration:
 
  
 
If your router's IP address is 192.168.0.1 and the Parallella's IP address is 192.168.0.2,
 
If your router's IP address is 192.168.0.1 and the Parallella's IP address is 192.168.0.2,
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
$ sudo nano /tmp/mnt1/etc/network/interfaces
+
sudo nano /tmp/mnt2/etc/network/interfaces
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
 
+
(Edit and save.)
 +
<blockquote>
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
 
source-directory /etc/network/interfaces.d
 
source-directory /etc/network/interfaces.d
Line 152: Line 167:
  
 
auto eth0
 
auto eth0
 +
 +
# static network settings
 
iface eth0 inet static
 
iface eth0 inet static
 
   address 192.168.0.2
 
   address 192.168.0.2
Line 157: Line 174:
 
   gateway 192.168.0.1
 
   gateway 192.168.0.1
 
   up sleep 3; mii-tool -F 1000baseT-FD
 
   up sleep 3; mii-tool -F 1000baseT-FD
 +
 +
# If you prefer DHCP, comment out the above 5 lines, uncomment the below.
 +
#iface eth0 inet dhcp
 +
#  up sleep 3; mii-tool -F 1000baseT-FD
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
 
+
</blockquote>
 +
NOTE: Linaro Quantal and Linaro Raring would not boot if "source-directory /etc/network/interfaces.d" was left in the file. --[[User:Gamedrummer|Gamedrummer]] ([[User talk:Gamedrummer|talk]]) 14:08, 10 July 2014 (UTC)
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
$ sudo nano /tmp/mnt1/etc/resolv.conf
+
sudo nano /tmp/mnt2/etc/resolv.conf
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
 +
<blockquote>
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
 
nameserver 192.168.0.1
 
nameserver 192.168.0.1
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
 +
</blockquote>
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
$ sudo sync
+
sudo sync
$ sudo umount /tmp/mnt1
+
sudo umount /tmp/mnt2
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
*Insert the SD Card to the Parallella
+
Insert the SD Card to the Parallella,<br />
*Connect Ethernet only
+
power-on,<br />
*Power-on
+
Wait 30 seconds,<br />
*Wait 30 seconds
+
You'll see a root terminal.<br />
*Connect HDMI, USB keyboard
+
If it doesn't boot, press the reset button and try again.<br />
*You'll see a root terminal
+
 
*Install openssh-server
+
==== Install openssh-server ====
  
 
On the Parallella:
 
On the Parallella:
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
# apt-get install openssh-server
+
apt-get update
# sync
+
apt-get install openssh-server
 +
sync
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
Now you can login the Parallella from your PC.
+
Now you can login the Parallella from your PC.<br />
On the PC:
+
On the PC,
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
$ ssh linaro@192.168.0.2
+
ssh linaro@192.168.0.2
 
password: linaro
 
password: linaro
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
Let's see how lightweight it is.
+
==== Create device nodes ====
 +
 
 +
<pre>
 +
sudo mknod -m 600 /dev/ttyPS0 c 251 0
 +
sudo chown root:tty /dev/ttyPS0
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
==== Let's see how lightweight it is ====
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
$ free
+
free
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
 +
<blockquote>
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
total used free shared buffers cached
+
            total       used       free     shared   buffers     cached
Mem: 992452 43696 948756 0 7512 13960
+
Mem:       992452     38356    954096          0       1816      13076
-/+ buffers/cache: 22224 970228
+
-/+ buffers/cache:     23464    968988
Swap: 0 0 0
+
Swap:           0         0         0
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
 +
</blockquote>
 +
 +
The memory consumption is only 23MB !! :D
  
Memory Consumption: Only 22MB !! :D
+
<pre>
 +
df
 +
</pre>
  
 +
<blockquote>
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
$ df
+
Filesystem    1K-blocks  Used Available Use% Mounted on
 +
/dev/root      30348232 311108  28472452  2% /
 +
none              99248    68    99180  1% /run
 +
none                5120      0      5120  0% /run/lock
 +
none              496224      0    496224  0% /run/shm
 +
none              102400      0    102400  0% /run/user
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
 +
</blockquote>
 +
 +
The disk consumption is only 304MB !!
 +
 +
== Additional Installation ==
 +
 +
==== Recommended Packages ====
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
Filesystem 1K-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on
+
sudo apt-get install vim-tiny nano fake-hwclock wget less unzip
/dev/root 1833872 270072 1452596 16% /
 
none 99248 72 99176 1% /run
 
none 5120 0 5120 0% /run/lock
 
none 496224 0 496224 0% /run/shm
 
none 102400 0 102400 0% /run/user
 
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
Disk Consumption: Only 270MB !!
+
==== Epiphany SDK ====
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
$ ps axo pid,cmd,rss,vsz
+
sudo apt-get install build-essential man-db manpages-dev git libmpc-dev libmpc2 libgmp3-dev libmpfr-dev ca-certificates
 +
 
 +
wget http://ftp.parallella.org/esdk/esdk.5.13.09.10_linux_armv7l.tgz
 +
 
 +
md5sum esdk.5.13.09.10_linux_armv7l.tgz
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
 +
<blockquote>
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
PID CMD RSS VSZ
+
52e3b60185c882c7641115993b6a72b5  esdk.5.13.09.10_linux_armv7l.tgz
1 /sbin/init 1696 2756
 
2 [kthreadd] 0 0
 
3 [ksoftirqd/0] 0 0
 
4 [kworker/0:0] 0 0
 
5 [kworker/0:0H] 0 0
 
6 [kworker/u4:0] 0 0
 
7 [migration/0] 0 0
 
8 [rcu_preempt] 0 0
 
9 [rcu_bh] 0 0
 
10 [rcu_sched] 0 0
 
11 [migration/1] 0 0
 
12 [ksoftirqd/1] 0 0
 
13 [kworker/1:0] 0 0
 
14 [kworker/1:0H] 0 0
 
15 [khelper] 0 0
 
16 [kdevtmpfs] 0 0
 
17 [kworker/u4:1] 0 0
 
340 [writeback] 0 0
 
342 [bioset] 0 0
 
343 [kblockd] 0 0
 
361 [khubd] 0 0
 
384 [cfg80211] 0 0
 
468 [rpciod] 0 0
 
478 [khungtaskd] 0 0
 
483 [kswapd0] 0 0
 
484 [fsnotify_mark] 0 0
 
485 [nfsiod] 0 0
 
486 [crypto] 0 0
 
583 [.qspi] 0 0
 
627 [xemacps] 0 0
 
639 [aoe_tx0] 0 0
 
640 [aoe_ktio0] 0 0
 
654 [kpsmoused] 0 0
 
811 [mmcqd/0] 0 0
 
823 [binder] 0 0
 
849 [irq/39-] 0 0
 
898 [deferwq] 0 0
 
905 [kworker/1:1H] 0 0
 
906 [kworker/0:1H] 0 0
 
907 [kworker/1:1] 0 0
 
908 [jbd2/mmcblk0p2-] 0 0
 
909 [ext4-rsv-conver] 0 0
 
999 upstart-udev-bridge --daemo 720 1964
 
1006 /lib/systemd/systemd-udevd 1084 8712
 
1118 rsyslogd -c5 1400 30124
 
1439 upstart-socket-bridge --dae 420 1924
 
1441 upstart-file-bridge --daemo 764 2332
 
1517 /sbin/getty -8 38400 tty4 704 1796
 
1519 /sbin/getty -8 38400 tty5 704 1796
 
1529 /sbin/getty -8 38400 tty2 704 1796
 
1531 /sbin/getty -8 38400 tty3 704 1796
 
1534 /sbin/getty -8 38400 tty6 704 1796
 
1558 /usr/sbin/sshd -D 2080 5600
 
1563 cron 784 2324
 
1597 /bin/login -f 1256 3264
 
1613 -bash 1624 4280
 
3568 sshd: linaro [priv] 2708 8852
 
3591 sshd: linaro@pts/1 1432 8852
 
3594 -bash 1636 4272
 
4104 [kworker/0:2] 0 0
 
4269 /sbin/getty -n -l /bin/auto 684 1616
 
4272 ps axo pid,cmd,rss,vsz 840 3740
 
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
 +
</blockquote>
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
$ dpkg-query -Wf='${binary:Package}\n'
+
sudo mkdir -p /opt/adapteva/
 +
sudo tar xzf esdk.5.13.09.10_linux_armv7l.tgz -C /opt/adapteva/
 +
sudo ln -sTf /opt/adapteva/esdk.5.13.09.10 /opt/adapteva/esdk
 +
 
 +
touch ~/.nano_history
 +
nano ~/.bashrc
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
 +
(add to the bottom of the file)
  
 +
<blockquote>
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
adduser
+
EPIPHANY_HOME=/opt/adapteva/esdk
apt
+
. ${EPIPHANY_HOME}/setup.sh
apt-utils
 
base-files
 
base-passwd
 
bash
 
bsdutils
 
busybox-initramfs
 
console-setup
 
coreutils
 
cpio
 
cron
 
dash
 
debconf
 
debianutils
 
diffutils
 
dpkg
 
e2fslibs:armhf
 
e2fsprogs
 
file
 
findutils
 
gcc-4.8-base:armhf
 
gnupg
 
gpgv
 
grep
 
gzip
 
hostname
 
ifupdown
 
initramfs-tools
 
initramfs-tools-bin
 
initscripts
 
insserv
 
iproute
 
iproute2
 
iputils-ping
 
isc-dhcp-client
 
isc-dhcp-common
 
kbd
 
keyboard-configuration
 
klibc-utils
 
kmod
 
libacl1:armhf
 
libapt-inst1.5:armhf
 
libapt-pkg4.12:armhf
 
libattr1:armhf
 
libaudit-common
 
libaudit1:armhf
 
libblkid1:armhf
 
libbsd0:armhf
 
libbz2-1.0:armhf
 
libc-bin
 
libc6:armhf
 
libcap2:armhf
 
libck-connector0:armhf
 
libcomerr2:armhf
 
libdb5.1:armhf
 
libdbus-1-3:armhf
 
libdrm2:armhf
 
libedit2:armhf
 
libexpat1:armhf
 
libffi6:armhf
 
libfribidi0:armhf
 
libgcc1:armhf
 
libgcrypt11:armhf
 
libgnutls-openssl27:armhf
 
libgnutls26:armhf
 
libgpg-error0:armhf
 
libgssapi-krb5-2:armhf
 
libjson-c2:armhf
 
libjson0:armhf
 
libk5crypto3:armhf
 
libkeyutils1:armhf
 
libklibc
 
libkmod2:armhf
 
libkrb5-3:armhf
 
libkrb5support0:armhf
 
liblocale-gettext-perl
 
liblockfile-bin
 
liblockfile1:armhf
 
liblzma5:armhf
 
libmagic1:armhf
 
libmount1:armhf
 
libncurses5:armhf
 
libncursesw5:armhf
 
libnewt0.52:armhf
 
libnih-dbus1:armhf
 
libnih1:armhf
 
libp11-kit0:armhf
 
libpam-modules:armhf
 
libpam-modules-bin
 
libpam-runtime
 
libpam0g:armhf
 
libpcre3:armhf
 
libplymouth2:armhf
 
libpng12-0:armhf
 
libpopt0:armhf
 
libprocps0:armhf
 
libpython-stdlib:armhf
 
libpython2.7-minimal:armhf
 
libpython2.7-stdlib:armhf
 
libreadline6:armhf
 
libselinux1:armhf
 
libsemanage-common
 
libsemanage1:armhf
 
libsepol1:armhf
 
libslang2:armhf
 
libsqlite3-0:armhf
 
libss2:armhf
 
libssl1.0.0:armhf
 
libstdc++6:armhf
 
libtasn1-3:armhf
 
libtinfo5:armhf
 
libudev1:armhf
 
libusb-0.1-4:armhf
 
libustr-1.0-1:armhf
 
libuuid1:armhf
 
libwrap0:armhf
 
linaro-nano
 
linaro-overlay
 
linaro-overlay-minimal
 
locales
 
lockfile-progs
 
login
 
logrotate
 
lsb-base
 
makedev
 
mawk
 
mime-support
 
module-init-tools
 
mount
 
mountall
 
multiarch-support
 
ncurses-base
 
ncurses-bin
 
net-tools
 
netbase
 
netcat-openbsd
 
ntpdate
 
openssh-client
 
openssh-server
 
passwd
 
perl-base
 
plymouth
 
procps
 
python
 
python-minimal
 
python2.7
 
python2.7-minimal
 
readline-common
 
rsyslog
 
sed
 
sensible-utils
 
sudo
 
sysv-rc
 
sysvinit-utils
 
tar
 
tzdata
 
ubuntu-keyring
 
ucf
 
udev
 
upstart
 
util-linux
 
whiptail
 
xkb-data
 
zlib1g:armhf
 
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
 +
</blockquote>
 +
 +
==== Disable sshd hostname look-up ====
 +
(To fix slow SSH connections)
 +
<pre>
 +
sudo nano /etc/ssh/sshd_config
 +
</pre>
 +
(add to the bottom of the file)
 +
<blockquote>
 +
<pre>
 +
UseDNS no
 +
</pre>
 +
</blockquote>
 +
 +
==== Enable devtmpfs ====
 +
(and disable serial console: they are incompatible)
 +
<pre>
 +
sudo mknod -m 660 /dev/mmcblk0 b 179 0
 +
sudo mknod -m 660 /dev/mmcblk0p1 b 179 1
 +
sudo mknod -m 660 /dev/mmcblk0p2 b 179 2
 +
 +
sudo apt-get install device-tree-compiler nano
 +
 +
sudo mount /dev/mmcblk0p1 /mnt
 +
cd /mnt
 +
sudo cp devicetree.dtb devicetree.dtb.bak
 +
 +
sudo dtc -I dtb -O dts -o devicetree.dts devicetree.dtb
 +
 +
sudo nano devicetree.dts
 +
</pre>
 +
(Search and Edit the "bootargs" line)
 +
<blockquote>
 +
<pre>
 +
bootargs = "root=/dev/mmcblk0p2 rw rootfstype=ext4 rootwait";
 +
</pre>
 +
</blockquote>
 +
 +
<pre>
 +
sudo dtc -I dts -O dtb -o devicetree.dtb devicetree.dts
 +
cd /
 +
sync
 +
sudo reboot
 +
</pre>
 +
 +
That's all! Below are installation instructions of lightweight desktop environment.
 +
 +
= How to Install lightweight X environment =
 +
 +
Demo video:
 +
http://youtu.be/6gpM57qB-I8
 +
 +
==== Install LXDE ====
 +
 +
<pre>
 +
sudo apt-get install alsa-base alsa-utils libasound2-plugins lxde x11-xserver-utils xserver-xorg xserver-xorg-video-fbdev xserver-xorg-video-modesetting feh xinit
 +
</pre>
 +
 +
==== Disable PCManFM Desktop mode ====
 +
(for faster displaying)
 +
<pre>
 +
sudo nano /etc/xdg/lxsession/LXDE/autostart
 +
</pre>
 +
(Delete the line "@pcmanfm --desktop --profile LXDE" and save.)
 +
 +
==== Set a background image ====
 +
 +
Put a background image file in your home directory.<br />
 +
(e.g. /home/linaro/background.png)<br />
 +
 +
<pre>
 +
sudo nano /etc/xdg/lxsession/LXDE/autostart
 +
</pre>
 +
(Append this line to the bottom of the file)
 +
 +
<blockquote>
 +
<pre>
 +
@feh --bg-fill /home/linaro/background.png
 +
</pre>
 +
</blockquote>
 +
 +
==== xorg configuration ====
 +
 +
<pre>
 +
sudo nano /etc/X11/xorg.conf
 +
</pre>
 +
 +
<blockquote>
 +
<pre>
 +
Section "Device"
 +
  Identifier "Card0"
 +
  Driver "modesetting"
 +
  Option "ShadowFB" "True"
 +
  Option "SWCursor" "True"
 +
  Option "HWCursor" "False"
 +
EndSection
 +
Section "Screen"
 +
  Identifier "Screen0"
 +
  Device "Card0"
 +
  SubSection "Display"
 +
#---- Uncomment your preferred mode ----
 +
    #Modes "1920x1200"
 +
    #Modes "1920x1080"
 +
    #Modes "1280x720"
 +
    #Modes "640x480"
 +
  EndSubSection
 +
EndSection
 +
</pre>
 +
</blockquote>
 +
 +
==== ALSA configuration ====
 +
 +
<pre>
 +
nano ~/.asoundrc
 +
</pre>
 +
(copy, paste and save)
 +
<blockquote>
 +
<pre>
 +
pcm.!default {
 +
type rate
 +
slave {
 +
  pcm "hw:0"
 +
  rate 48000
 +
}
 +
converter "samplerate"
 +
}
 +
</pre>
 +
</blockquote>
 +
 +
<pre>
 +
sync
 +
sudo reboot
 +
</pre>
 +
 +
==== How to login as a normal user ====
 +
 +
After booting, press Ctrl+Alt+F2
 +
<pre>
 +
login: linaro
 +
Password: linaro
 +
</pre>
 +
 +
Or, (easier way)<br />
 +
In the root prompt,<br />
 +
<pre>
 +
su linaro
 +
cd
 +
</pre>
 +
 +
==== Start X environment ====
 +
 +
<pre>
 +
startx
 +
</pre>
 +
 +
==== Install Firefox ====
 +
 +
<pre>
 +
sudo apt-get install firefox
 +
</pre>
 +
 +
==== Speed up Firefox ====
 +
 +
Launch Firefox, Type "about:config" in the URL bar, Type "browser.cache.disk.enable" in the "Search:" bar, Change the value true->false by double-clicking.
 +
 +
Type "mousewheel.acceleration.start" in the "Search:" bar, Double click, set [2].
 +
 +
==== Install media player ====
 +
 +
<pre>
 +
sudo apt-get install smplayer
 +
</pre>
 +
 +
Launch smplayer,<br />
 +
Options->Preferences->Video->Output driver: x11<br />
 +
Options->Preferences->Audio->Output driver: alsa<br />
 +
 +
==== How to force framebuffer resolution to 1280x720 ====
 +
This increases desktop performance on a full-HD monitor.<br />
 +
<br />
 +
The preferred resolution is 1280x720, however you can set another resolution.<br />
 +
<br />
 +
To check the available resolutions, type this command on a terminal. (with HDMI connected, on native X Window, not in ssh)<br />
 +
 +
<pre>
 +
cat /sys/class/drm/card0-HDMI-A-1/modes
 +
</pre>
 +
 +
'''Note: The resolution settings of the xorg.conf (Modes "1280x720") must match with the bootargs settings (video=HDMI-A-1:1280x720).'''
 +
 +
Edit bootargs and update dtb file.<br />
 +
How to: [[Parallella_Linaro_Nano#Enable_devtmpfs]]
 +
<pre>
 +
bootargs = "root=/dev/mmcblk0p2 rw rootfstype=ext4 rootwait video=HDMI-A-1:1280x720";
 +
</pre>
 +
Edit xorg.conf<br />
 +
How to: [[Parallella_Linaro_Nano#xorg_configuration]]
 +
<pre>
 +
Modes "1280x720"
 +
# In the Section "Screen"
 +
</pre>
 +
 +
{{Template:Parallella Navbox}}

Latest revision as of 22:45, 17 January 2015

How to Install Linaro Saucy Nano (minimal headless system)

Requirements

Ubuntu PC, SD Card, SD Card adapter, Parallella board

On the PC's terminal:

Download the files

Find the kernel tarball and the FPGA bitstream file that are suitable for your board.

http://www.parallella.org/create-sdcard/

Note: If you want to use "headless bitstream" and "headless kernel", first install Linaro using "HDMI bitstream" and "HDMI kernel", then replace them with the headless one. (A HDMI monitor and a keyboard are needed for installing process.)
These files are in the partition 1 (FAT32), so you can easily replace them using ordinary PC.

wget --no-check-certificate https://[THE_URL_OF_THE_KERNEL_TARBALL]

wget --no-check-certificate -O parallella.bit.bin https://[THE_URL_OF_THE_BITSTREAM]

wget http://releases.linaro.org/14.04/ubuntu/saucy-images/nano/linaro-saucy-nano-20140410-652.tar.gz
md5sum linaro-saucy-nano-20140410-652.tar.gz
cded44187fb762ba7ea7b1ee092a0998  linaro-saucy-nano-20140410-652.tar.gz

Determine the device name of the SD Card

sudo parted -l

In case of a 2GB SD Card:

Model: SD/MM Reader
Disk /dev/sdX: 2042MB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: msdos

Number Start End Size Type File system Flags
1 1049kB 49.3MB 48.2MB primary fat16
2 49.3MB 2042MB 1992MB primary ext4

"/dev/sdX" is the device name of the SD Card
(e.g. sdb, sdc, sdd, sde, mmcblk0, mmcblk1, ... and, Beware! Don't partition HDD!!!)
sdX : an example of the device name (e.g. sde, mmcblk0)
sdX1 : partition 1 of the device (e.g. sde1, mmcblk0p1)
sdX2 : partition 2 of the device (e.g. sde2, mmcblk0p2)

Partition the SD Card

Unmount the SD Card if it was automounted, then,

sudo parted -a optimal /dev/sdX

(parted) print

If there are two partitions on the SD Card,

Number Start End Size Type File system Flags
1 1049kB 99.6MB 98.6MB primary fat16 lba
2 99.6MB 2042MB 1942MB primary

Delete all existing partition

(parted) mklabel msdos
Warning: The existing disk label on /dev/sdX will be destroyed
and all data on this disk will be lost. Do you want to continue?
Yes/No? yes

Make new partitions

(parted) mkpart p fat32 2048s 256MB
(parted) mkpart p ext2 256MB -2MB
(parted) q

Check the partition

sudo fdisk -l /dev/sdX
Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
/dev/sdX1 2048 499711 248832 c W95 FAT32 (LBA)
/dev/sdX2 499712 3887103 1693696 83 Linux

Format the partition

sudo mkfs.vfat -n BOOT /dev/sdX1
sudo mkfs.ext4 -L rootfs /dev/sdX2

Extract rootfs

sudo mkdir /tmp/mnt1 /tmp/mnt2
sudo mount /dev/sdX2 /tmp/mnt2
sudo tar --strip-components=1 -C /tmp/mnt2 -xzpf linaro-saucy-nano-20140410-652.tar.gz
sudo sync
sudo umount /tmp/mnt2

Extract BOOT partition

sudo mount -o umask=000 -t vfat /dev/sdX1 /tmp/mnt1
sudo tar --no-same-owner -C /tmp/mnt1 -xzf [THE_FILENAME_OF_THE_KERNEL_TARBALL]
sudo cp parallella.bit.bin /tmp/mnt1/
sudo sync
sudo umount /tmp/mnt1

Edit some configuration files

Preventing to install unnecessary packages

sudo mount /dev/sdX2 /tmp/mnt2
sudo nano /tmp/mnt2/etc/apt/apt.conf.d/00InstallRecommends

(Edit and save.)

APT::Install-Recommends "false";

Network configuration

If your router's IP address is 192.168.0.1 and the Parallella's IP address is 192.168.0.2,

sudo nano /tmp/mnt2/etc/network/interfaces

(Edit and save.)

source-directory /etc/network/interfaces.d

auto lo
iface lo inet loopback

auto eth0

# static network settings
iface eth0 inet static
   address 192.168.0.2
   netmask 255.255.255.0
   gateway 192.168.0.1
   up sleep 3; mii-tool -F 1000baseT-FD

# If you prefer DHCP, comment out the above 5 lines, uncomment the below.
#iface eth0 inet dhcp
#   up sleep 3; mii-tool -F 1000baseT-FD

NOTE: Linaro Quantal and Linaro Raring would not boot if "source-directory /etc/network/interfaces.d" was left in the file. --Gamedrummer (talk) 14:08, 10 July 2014 (UTC)

sudo nano /tmp/mnt2/etc/resolv.conf
nameserver 192.168.0.1
sudo sync
sudo umount /tmp/mnt2

Insert the SD Card to the Parallella,
power-on,
Wait 30 seconds,
You'll see a root terminal.
If it doesn't boot, press the reset button and try again.

Install openssh-server

On the Parallella:

apt-get update
apt-get install openssh-server
sync

Now you can login the Parallella from your PC.
On the PC,

ssh linaro@192.168.0.2
password: linaro

Create device nodes

sudo mknod -m 600 /dev/ttyPS0 c 251 0
sudo chown root:tty /dev/ttyPS0

Let's see how lightweight it is

free
             total       used       free     shared    buffers     cached
Mem:        992452      38356     954096          0       1816      13076
-/+ buffers/cache:      23464     968988
Swap:            0          0          0

The memory consumption is only 23MB !! :D

df
Filesystem     1K-blocks   Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/root       30348232 311108  28472452   2% /
none               99248     68     99180   1% /run
none                5120      0      5120   0% /run/lock
none              496224      0    496224   0% /run/shm
none              102400      0    102400   0% /run/user

The disk consumption is only 304MB !!

Additional Installation

Recommended Packages

sudo apt-get install vim-tiny nano fake-hwclock wget less unzip

Epiphany SDK

sudo apt-get install build-essential man-db manpages-dev git libmpc-dev libmpc2 libgmp3-dev libmpfr-dev ca-certificates

wget http://ftp.parallella.org/esdk/esdk.5.13.09.10_linux_armv7l.tgz

md5sum esdk.5.13.09.10_linux_armv7l.tgz 
52e3b60185c882c7641115993b6a72b5  esdk.5.13.09.10_linux_armv7l.tgz
sudo mkdir -p /opt/adapteva/
sudo tar xzf esdk.5.13.09.10_linux_armv7l.tgz -C /opt/adapteva/
sudo ln -sTf /opt/adapteva/esdk.5.13.09.10 /opt/adapteva/esdk

touch ~/.nano_history
nano ~/.bashrc

(add to the bottom of the file)

EPIPHANY_HOME=/opt/adapteva/esdk
. ${EPIPHANY_HOME}/setup.sh

Disable sshd hostname look-up

(To fix slow SSH connections)

sudo nano /etc/ssh/sshd_config

(add to the bottom of the file)

UseDNS no

Enable devtmpfs

(and disable serial console: they are incompatible)

sudo mknod -m 660 /dev/mmcblk0 b 179 0
sudo mknod -m 660 /dev/mmcblk0p1 b 179 1
sudo mknod -m 660 /dev/mmcblk0p2 b 179 2

sudo apt-get install device-tree-compiler nano

sudo mount /dev/mmcblk0p1 /mnt
cd /mnt
sudo cp devicetree.dtb devicetree.dtb.bak

sudo dtc -I dtb -O dts -o devicetree.dts devicetree.dtb

sudo nano devicetree.dts

(Search and Edit the "bootargs" line)

bootargs = "root=/dev/mmcblk0p2 rw rootfstype=ext4 rootwait";
sudo dtc -I dts -O dtb -o devicetree.dtb devicetree.dts
cd /
sync
sudo reboot

That's all! Below are installation instructions of lightweight desktop environment.

How to Install lightweight X environment

Demo video: http://youtu.be/6gpM57qB-I8

Install LXDE

sudo apt-get install alsa-base alsa-utils libasound2-plugins lxde x11-xserver-utils xserver-xorg xserver-xorg-video-fbdev xserver-xorg-video-modesetting feh xinit

Disable PCManFM Desktop mode

(for faster displaying)

sudo nano /etc/xdg/lxsession/LXDE/autostart

(Delete the line "@pcmanfm --desktop --profile LXDE" and save.)

Set a background image

Put a background image file in your home directory.
(e.g. /home/linaro/background.png)

sudo nano /etc/xdg/lxsession/LXDE/autostart

(Append this line to the bottom of the file)

@feh --bg-fill /home/linaro/background.png

xorg configuration

sudo nano /etc/X11/xorg.conf
Section "Device"
  Identifier "Card0"
  Driver "modesetting"
  Option "ShadowFB" "True"
  Option "SWCursor" "True"
  Option "HWCursor" "False"
EndSection
Section "Screen"
  Identifier "Screen0"
  Device "Card0"
  SubSection "Display"
#---- Uncomment your preferred mode ----
    #Modes "1920x1200"
    #Modes "1920x1080"
    #Modes "1280x720"
    #Modes "640x480"
  EndSubSection
EndSection

ALSA configuration

nano ~/.asoundrc

(copy, paste and save)

pcm.!default {
 type rate
 slave {
  pcm "hw:0"
  rate 48000
 }
 converter "samplerate"
}
sync
sudo reboot

How to login as a normal user

After booting, press Ctrl+Alt+F2

login: linaro
Password: linaro

Or, (easier way)
In the root prompt,

su linaro
cd

Start X environment

startx

Install Firefox

sudo apt-get install firefox

Speed up Firefox

Launch Firefox, Type "about:config" in the URL bar, Type "browser.cache.disk.enable" in the "Search:" bar, Change the value true->false by double-clicking.

Type "mousewheel.acceleration.start" in the "Search:" bar, Double click, set [2].

Install media player

sudo apt-get install smplayer

Launch smplayer,
Options->Preferences->Video->Output driver: x11
Options->Preferences->Audio->Output driver: alsa

How to force framebuffer resolution to 1280x720

This increases desktop performance on a full-HD monitor.

The preferred resolution is 1280x720, however you can set another resolution.

To check the available resolutions, type this command on a terminal. (with HDMI connected, on native X Window, not in ssh)

cat /sys/class/drm/card0-HDMI-A-1/modes

Note: The resolution settings of the xorg.conf (Modes "1280x720") must match with the bootargs settings (video=HDMI-A-1:1280x720).

Edit bootargs and update dtb file.
How to: Parallella_Linaro_Nano#Enable_devtmpfs

bootargs = "root=/dev/mmcblk0p2 rw rootfstype=ext4 rootwait video=HDMI-A-1:1280x720";

Edit xorg.conf
How to: Parallella_Linaro_Nano#xorg_configuration

Modes "1280x720"
# In the Section "Screen"